Articles

One of One

May 21, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Creative

One of One

One of one.
That’s how I’m treated.
I’m not special,
Nor is anyone in this school.

But we, the many thousands
All stand here
Side by side.
And, surely the teachers,
the counselors, and the staff,
They do know us.

By face, and name.
In halls they greet us.
In mornings they meet us.
To ensure our excellence.

Now, critics do cry.
In their fluster they say
That: we are overcrowded
That faces are blended
And there is not an individual.

But here, in public schools
We can see the individual.
We are known and we are heard.
Our people, our staff and students.

We are not ones of millions.
We are ones of one.
So are the claims false?
Does the demeanor they set,
Does it lie?
Can we deny these charges?

In a perfect world the answer is yes.
But merit can be given to claim,
For there are some,
The rogue few.

The rogue few, they know of none.
The faces, the voices are blended.
They deny the rights of the students
And, the staff too.
They do deny the individuality.
For they are the robotic society.

We, the ones with voices can help.
We can ensure the benefits for all.
We make the mark.
We are the voice.

If we can set the goal.
If we can get the voice out.
To other schools both public and private.
We can ensure that
They will not be one of million.
But, rather one of one.

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Inner Animal

May 21, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Creative

So cute, fluffy or furry.

So calm, scaled or smooth.

So wise, yet so vague.

And always, to remain under watch.

A paradox inside a cage.

A labyrinth within a tank.

So many lessons of life.

Yet, inside such a small body.

How can it do this?

How can it teach us without words?

Both questions physical and metaphysical,

is entrapped inside?

Lessons of science.

Anatomy we can learn.

The differences of humans and animals.

They can become apparent.

Lessons of logic.

How it thinks; how it lives.

It comes into question,

and we can look into our own society.

Lessons of art

The world within the human mind

Elapses with the world of the animal

To see what will come next

And lessons of math

The body of the creature

How can it be so perfect?

Well, time to take a closer look

So can we answer why they are so important?

Why they are so magnificent

They may sometimes be so simple

But, to a mind of power, they are a plethora of questions

 

 

References

Shingler, M. (2011, April 07). Benefits of classroom animals article. Retrieved from

http://www.petsintheclassroom.org/resources/benefits-of-classroom-animals/

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The Crowd Roars

May 21, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Creative

The crowd roars

For honor and glory

For Thunder and the Pride

From the top to the bottom

The bleachers are loud

The crowd roars

For that game Soccer

The game of kicking

Where contact is fleeting

But the blows are harsh

The crowd roars

For that game Basketball

The game of passing

The hoop is quite tall

But so are the players

The crowd roars

For that game Football

The game of tackles

The pride of schools

But the downfall of budgets

The crowd roars

For all the sports

For their honor and glory

But also for their Thunder and Pride

References

 

Gibson, Owen. 3 May 2013. Warnings against School Funding Cuts.  Retrieved from

http://www.guardian.co.uk/education/2013/feb/06/headteachers-athletes-cuts-school-sports-

funding.

 

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Logic Prevail

May 21, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Creative

Logic does prevail

When one tries to ensure

The future of all

Through perseverence and unity

Logic does prevail

That we stand together

Hand in hand

No discrimination

Logic does prevail

That we never said no

Race, ethinicity or gender

We accept all

Logic does prevail

Here we are proof

We stand each hand a brick

In this building’s foundation

Logic does prevail

Can we not deny

That we stand the strongest

United together under one district?

Logic does prevail

It is not only the district

But also every school in part

They work together every person united

And thus logic does prevail.

We, everyone and every school

We are best united

In logic and in strife

 

 

References

Bloom, S. (2013, April 23). Ace on government regulation. Retrieved from

http://www.acenet.edu/advocacy-news/Pages/Government-Regulation.aspx

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Are Public Schools the Deficient Ones?

May 21, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Public Vs. Private, School Structure

A variety of studies conducted during the past several decades have studied the differences between public and private schools.  These examinations, however, have given a hardly unanimous opinion on the subject.  This, however, does not mean that they are wrong; rather, they all contain sections of the whole truth.  Therefore, this essay looks at two of the most comprehensive of the reports and attempts to put their truths together into a cohesive whole.The two reports, one by Harold Wenglinsky and the other by the National Center for Educational Statistics, are fairly similar in makeup but differ importantly in their conclusions.

One of the prime differences between the studies is that the Government study operated on the idealized grounds that low-income students have the same advantages in public education that their wealthy counterparts do.  The report by Wenglinsky, while not as large or as well funded, studied students in six different monetary brackets.  “The study took into account key background characteristics, including students’ achievement before high school, their family’s socioeconomic status (SES), and various indicators of parental involvement” (Wenglinsky, 2007).  Clearly, Wenglinsky did the right thing, while the government study made a mistake (or omission) it never should have made.  Interestingly however, both studies found that, once income and IQ was taken into account, students in public high schools performed at the same level as students in private high schools.

“The general conclusion from the study was that demographic differences between students in public and private schools more than account for the relatively high raw scores of private schools. Indeed, after controlling for these differences, the presumably advantageous ‘private school effect’ disappears, and even reverses in most cases” (Braun 2006).

Private schools have different opinions on the subject, from mildly reproachful to scathing retorts directed at public education’s perceived shortcomings.  “Available research indicates private-school student performance is superior to their public school peers, even after controlling for student background differences”(Alger, 2013).  Technically, while this is all true, it does not account for the fact that private school superiority is ingrained into the public psyche, thus causing more talented students to choose private over public schooling.  What private school supporters cannot refute, however, is the greater socioeconomic diversity in public schools.  “Public high schools in the U.S. offer, on average (according to publicschoolreview.com), new enrollees nearly 15% more diverse student bodies than private schools.” (Fowle, 2009).  Both of the studies point to socioeconomic diversity in public schooling being much higher than in the private schooling system.  The reason for this is because minorities in America are less likely to go to private schools, while the entrenched and privileged white majority often opts for the more expensive education offered by private schools.  In addition, it often has to do with prejudicial moves made by parents when choosing a school for their students to go to.

“… Had decided to send her son to a private high school because she didn’t want him going to a school in the kind of environment, with “the kind of people” at my public high school. The kinds of people she was no doubt referring to were those of color, of varying ethnicities and socioeconomic backgrounds. To her, the type of learning environment these students presented to her son seemed hostile. ” (Fowle, 2009).

Clearly, prejudice trumps realities when choosing schools.  This would easily help tip the balance in studies made without provision for such occurrences.  However, the most current studies include modifiers for things such as this, and have found that, when socioeconomic modifiers are applied, there is absolutely no difference between private and public education other than the price.  Thus, public schools have a clear advantage over private ones.

 

References

 

Alger, E. Vicki. 15 February 2013 “Midlands Voices: Private schools offer great choices” .

Retrieved from www.omaha.com/article/20130215/NEWS0802/702159981/1677

 

Fowle, Erik. 9 August 2009. “What Diversity in High School Really Teaches Us”

Retrieved from ethnoblog.newamericamedia.org/2009/08/public-vs-private-what-diversity-in-high-school-really-teaches-us.php

 

H. Braun, F. Jenkins, W. Grigg. July 2006. “Comparing Private Schools and Public Schools Using

Heirarchal Linear Modeling” Retrieved from nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/pdf/studies/2006461.pdf

 

Wenglinsky, Harold. October 2007. “Are Private High Schools Better Academically Than Public

High Schools?” Retrieved from www.edline.com/uploads/pdf/PrivateSchoolsReport.pdf

 

 

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American Education: A History

May 21, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Bills

American education has come a long way in a hundred years. Today, our students learn in racially and sexually integrated classrooms, using some of the most advanced technology. We can trace the perilous journey taken by our education system backwards through time in order to see just how far we have come. In 1972, congress passed Title IX, banning gender discrimination in education. In 1965 student loans were established to allow more students to go on to college: “As part of Lyndon Johnson’s Great Society, the U.S. Congress passed the Higher Education Act of 1965; this important legislation established a system of low-interest loans and scholarships to make college education more affordable for everyone” (“American public education:,” 2013). In 1954 the Supreme Court voted on the case Brown v. the Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, stating that segregation had no place in education and racially integrating our classrooms. This landmark case set hundreds of young African Americans on the path to a better life, a path which led one young African American into the White House. Preceding these groundbreaking developments were the major reforms in the early nineteen hundreds. These reforms included the establishment of public colleges and a new application based learning system. Today, the usage of hi-tech devices in the class room is allowing children of all ethnicities to learn equally and together. Tomorrow, perhaps all teaching will be done electronically, allowing students who miss school, not to miss a beat.

 

References

American public education: An origin story. (2013, April 16). Retrieved from http://www.educationnews.org/education-policy-and-politics/american-public-education-an-origin-story/

 

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Importance of Foreign Languages in High-School and Life

May 21, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Foreign Languages, Public Education Programs

In a world of seven billion people all speaking different languages and dialects, it is important to be able to communicate outside one’s local community. Knowing even one or two foreign languages will be helpful in years to come. Learning new languages is especially easy as a child or adolescent and is a good way to prepare for future jobs and vacations; and, as always, public schools are here to help. Foreign languages are essential in this fast-paced, interconnected world, and public school allows students to take the world by storm. With a wide variety of classes available, many teens get the chance to explore different cultures and become bilingual in the process.

Learning a new language is an important part of the education system. For years, many experts have been noticing the drastic educational benefits associated with learning a new language, and they cannot wait to integrate foreign language as an essential part of all schools, as shown by College Board’s recommendation: “College Board recommended expanding basic skills to include foreign language education for all students in 1983, and in 1996 the American Association of School Administrators identified knowledge of foreign languages as one of the most important skills students need to develop to prosper in the 21st century” (Bell & McCallum 2012). Very few elementary and middle schools in the US have mandatory language programs, but there are public high schools that maintain a beneficial two year minimum language requirement. These schools also offer a variety of languages, levels, and times for student convenience and advancement. Public high schools even play host to more intense summer immersion programs. Learning these new languages will prove to be beneficial, now and later.

It has been proven that knowing and understanding a variety of languages helps SAT participants. Learning multiple languages allows one to fixate on not only the grammatical nuances of the new language but also the inner workings of his or her native tongue. The English portion of the SATs can, in fact, be influenced by how well the taker knows other languages, as many studies have shown: “[Experts] noting that students who averaged four or more years of foreign language study scored higher on the verbal section of the SAT than those who had studied four or more years in any other subject area” (Bell & McCallum 2012). This shows that knowing other languages can help one in all areas of life, from great high school SATs, to top-ranking universities, and this unique qualification will lead to amazing jobs.

Knowing a foreign language allows for amazing trips to the many countries. As students take a public high school language class, they begin to understand the culture as well as the words. When they later visit that country, they can speak to natives, and have an easier time integrating themselves into customary traditions. Study abroad programs are wonderful for those who understand the language and want to know more. In a study, which revolved around students who traveled to Sweden, there was a noted difference between those students who knew the language and those who did not. The teacher assessing the success of the student exchange noticed:

Max appeared less assertive than the other participants, with regard to seeking meaningful contact with Swedes […] his Swedish proficiency was markedly lower than the other three participants. […]Faith seemed genuinely happy and exhibited a sense of humor regarding her own culture and the culture of her hosts. This sense of humor made her popular with her classmates. During our January visit, I witnessed numerous occasions where Faith would initiate or partake in jokes and humor. (Spenader 2011).

This study consisted of a mixture of students with varying degrees of understanding the Swedish language. Faith, who had taken several Swedish classes, was able to understand the language, the culture, and even the humor. Max, who knew very little of the language or culture did not get along with many people in the country; and, he left knowing nothing about the culture, and with the same amount of words he had known before. Languages can certainly help one integrate into a whole new world, which opens many possibilities.

Public high schools are leading the way in foreign language studies. Without their extensive classes and cultural immersion, new languages would be difficult to comprehend. It is wonderful that these schools offer, and sometimes even require, foreign languages, because they can help in so many ways for the rest of a student’s life: “a number of experts tout that the knowledge of other languages enhances travel enjoyment, encourages learning the roots of one’s own language, increases interest in multiple cultures, challenges the individual, increases neural efficiency, and, as mentioned above, increases cognitive and academic skills” (Bell & McCallum 2012). Without public high schools and their increasingly beneficial foreign language classes, many students would end up like Max, unhappy and disappointed with their learning and travel experience. Hopefully, many more American schools will begin to integrate languages into their elementary curriculum, and America will see a great new chapter begin in her life.

 

 

References

Bell S. E. & McCallum S. R. (2012). Do Foreign Language Learning, Cognitive, and Affective Variables Differ as a Function of Exceptionality Status and Gender? International Education Vol. 42 Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy1.lib.az.us:2048/ehost/detail?vid=5&sid=36d6ce8d-7e97-4637-b073-0df7209ff49e%40sessionmgr13&hid=9&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#db=ehh&AN=85171716

Spenader A. J. (2011). Language Learning and Acculturation: Lessons From High School and Gap-Year Exchange Students. Foreign Language Annals; Jun2011, Vol. 44 Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy1.lib.az.us:2048/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=36d6ce8d-7e97-4637-b073-0df7209ff49e%40sessionmgr13&vid=7&hid=9

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How Prom Became Tradition

May 20, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Public Education Programs

 

As spring comes around, the anticipation of upperclassmen students increases because with the new season, comes prom. By simply hearing the word ‘prom,’ one begins to imagine girls feeling beautiful in sparkly gowns and guys looking dapper in their tuxedos. All of the students scramble to plan what they will wear, where they will eat, how they will be transported to the prom location, and most importantly, who they will go with. When did this expensive, yet special night become a tradition for high schools? Historians believe that when the Roaring 20s gave birth to lively, youthful dances, colleges began to hold dances for their students; fortunately, high schools adapted the extraordinary event, which currently benefits thousands of students across the nation.

Prom may have begun as a celebration for seniors in college, but the whimsical dance caught on quickly. According to Jason DeRusha, a CBS reporter, prom originated as a formal ceremony for a college’s graduating class. Yet in the 1940s and 1950s, co-ed dances grew more popular proportionally to the growing teenage culture, and prom was eventually transferred to high schools. The evidence was in a journal of a student from Amherst college, who attended a prom at Smith college in 1894 (DeRusha, 2012). Historians claim that by the end of the decade, “a thriving postwar economy allowed high schools to eschew the traditional gymnasium in favor of proms held in hotels or at country clubs” (Suddath, 2010). Students had the right idea that holding a school prom at locations outside of school will create a more intimate atmosphere for a monumental occasion.

As proms became more frequent with high schools, its importance grew as well. In fact, President John F. Kennedy placed a high-school’s prom ahead of his fundraiser at the Beverly Hilton. He insisted on cancelling his event for the prom. Furthermore, in 1975, Susan Ford’s father was President Ford; thus, she managed to pull strings and “held her high school’s senior prom at possibly the best prom location ever: the White House” (Suddath, 2010). Her schoolmates attended a prom at the best location in history. The examples of presidents placing great care for the dazzling school dance proves its climbing popularity and the beginnings of becoming a tradition.

Although proms swiftly entered the dreams of students around the nation, there were some obstacles schools had to overcome. In 1954, the Supreme Court ordered segregated public schools unconstitutional, yet the Georgia Wilcox County high school has not had an integrated prom until this year, as covered by reporter Josh Haskell. Students have adapted quickly to the modern belief of inter-racial communities and scorn segregation. For 2013, a group of students have focused all their efforts into getting the school to approve the first integrated prom. Many who attend the high school admitted that they were embarrassed to be under the name of a school that will not put aside its prejudices. The county superintendent Steve Smith, along with the Board of Education, completely agrees and supports the students. On the other hand, he explains that their parents, who have been raised by racist relatives, cannot attest to the same point of view: “Skin color seems to be a much larger issue for the adults than the students, and my prayer is that this effort will be a huge step toward reconciling the wrongs of the past” (Haskell, 2013).  Living in the 2000s now, the district and students realize that the continuation of segregation must stop. Unfortunately, the district will not pay for the school’s prom; however, the students have a renewed vigor and continue their efforts in fundraising and advocating a new, integrated prom.

In a similar case, students had to rally for the minority at Mona Shores High school in Michigan, though this time, the minority is a transgender. Continuing to this day, there are still a significant amount of people who do not accept all sexualities, such as being gay, lesbian, or transsexual. At the targeted high school, a student, Reed, was voted as homecoming king by the majority of the students and teachers, who accepted him for who he was. Unfortunately, the school district refused to allow him his title since his records claim he is female. After a superfluous amount of complaints and protests, the school now decided to hold a gender neutral affair for the upcoming prom. Some adults refuse to sympathize with the ordeal, such as Carl Morris: “I don’t think that the student should have been allowed to run for prom king. I think that the school was cowardly to bow to political correctness with a ‘gender neutral’ prom” (Bennett, 2011). Thankfully, Morris is among the few insignificant adults who will not stand in the way of the motivated students who want equality for their fellow classmates.

Prom has come a long way, evolving from a formal college experience to a high school tradition. Although prom did not have a smooth ride during its travel through evolution, the results of the challenges, such as in Georgia and Michigan, portray the magnitude of the love for prom and the extent students will go to keep it as a tradition. As proven, nothing will stand in the way of students’ determination when it comes to the magical dance. Through the willpower of students, prom will be a tradition that lives on forever.

 

References

Bennett, C. (2011, March 6). How high school proms became battlegrounds for gender identity rights.Edge Boston, Massachusetts. Retrieved from http://www.edgeboston.com/?117050

DeRusha, J. (Writer) (2012). Good question: How did prom become a h.s. tradition? [Web series episode]. In CBS. Minnesota: CBS. Retrieved from http://minnesota.cbslocal.com/2012/04/26/good-question-how-did-prom-become-a-h-s-tradition/

Haskell, J. (Writer) (2013). Georgia teens fed up with segregated proms [Web series episode]. In ABC News. ABC. Retrieved from http://abcnews.go.com/US/georgia-teens-fed-segregated-proms/story?id=18880791

Suddath, C. (2010, May 17). Brief history: The prom. Time magazine, Retrieved from http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1987594,00.html

 

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Grasping for Knowledge

May 14, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Common Core, Important Posts, School Structure

Intellectual, societal, and technological standards are progressively proliferating day by day. Our children are one step behind those of Japan, Denmark, China, and Czech Republic. (Bennett, 2006). It is only necessary that our generation meet the standards of the rest of the world. This is attainable only by the augmentation of time spent focusing on academics. Homework is a vital part of successfully achieving academic ascendancy. Public schools incorporate daily assignments to help students prioritize, manage time, become responsible, review the lesson learned, and comprehend the curriculum.

Like any issue, there are advocates and critics of this subject. Advocates against the implementation of homework argue that too much homework is excessive and demeaning to a student. “A recent Associated Press-America Online poll found that the average elementary school student does 78 minutes per night and middle schoolers 99 minutes, amounts far exceeding suggested guidelines of 10 minutes per grade per night.” (Bennett,  2006). There is little correlation between assignments and achievement in elementary and middle school. In high school, excessive amounts of homework are considered to be “counterproductive” to students. The time spent on homework since 1981 has increased 51%, according to a study of 2,900 students in 2004. (Wallis, 2006). Harris Cooper, a homework critic, confirmed through studies, that homework does not account for achievement in elementary school. Cooper also concluded from his research that students who are: “doing more than 60 to 90 min. a night in middle school and more than 2 hr. in high school is associated with, gulp, lower scores.” (Wallis, 2006). Teachers in low test scoring countries like Greece, Thailand, and Iran assign copious homework than American teachers do. The author further stated that: ‘“…homework is damaging our kids’ interest in learning, undermining their curiosity.”’ (Wallis,2006).  To summarize this critic’s argument, she is simply stating that homework itself is not causing the harm, rather it is the plethora. Adjusting the amount of assignments assigned is a simple refute to the critics’ advocacy against homework in general. This problem of academic decline, in comparison to other countries, is proportional to profligate homework assigned. It is easily solved with an abatement of the current amount given out.

According to recent statistics, Chinese students are surpassing the US academically through its graduation requirements. Their curriculum is advanced due to its forced implementation of more difficult courses. “…(to graduate from high school, students must complete biology, chemistry, physics, algebra and geometry), but the Chinese school year is a month longer. When regular school time is combined with homework, Chinese students spend twice as much time on academics.” ( Less Homework, More Trouble, 2006). Adding even one more month to the public school year can make a drastic difference. More time spent on challenging students with homework will only result in an increased ability to prioritize the important parts of their lives. With homework assigned, it helps for the younger generation to schedule school activities before recreational activities. (Benefits of Homework). Arranging everyday activities in order of vitality is imperative for future success. Eminence in a child’s future career is directly proportional to the ability to prioritize important events and tasks.

Managing time is one of the many characteristics that make up a productive member of society. “Once they start studying their lessons in the allotted time, they start learning the art of prioritization and also learn how to complete their tasks in a scheduled time. This helps them in managing their time and studies independently which instills self-discipline in students.” (Benefits of Homework). Homework is a daily routine that instills a professional sense of time management. Throughout the twelve years in a public school system, managing time is exercised daily through assigned homework.

Success is more attainable academically; if the material taught every day is reviewed. Homework is an essential tool in review. By utilizing assignments, instructors are able to determine whether or not the curriculum is being comprehended by specific students. Any pupils who need extra assistance with a concept can be easily identified through the completion and accuracy of their homework. It also acts as a bridge between home and school. This bridge connects parents with the ongoing activities, projects, and events. Homework“ …also helps them  recollect and convey information and implement the information whenever need arises. Students are taught to focus and work on their own which gradually develops their interest in new subjects.” (Benefits of Homework). Thus, homework incites students to have an inquisitive attitude towards the curriculum.

Critics for the complete removal of work assigned to be done at home, can only attribute that it is the plethoric amount assigned, rather than homework itself. Public school’s utilization of homework only accounts for a student’s ability to prioritize paramount tasks, manage time, be incumbent, review the concept taught, and fully understand the curriculum. With the world’s academic standards expanding beyond the horizon, our arms must be invariably reaching to grasp this stretch of knowledge.

References

Bennett, S. (2006, July 2). Homework does not=A’s. USA Today. Retrieved from

http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/opinion/editorials/2006-07-02-opposing-view_x.htm

Wallis, C. (2006, August 29). The Myth About Homework. Time. Retrieved from

http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1376208-2,00.html

Benefits of Homework. Retrieved from

http://lifestyle.iloveindia.com/lounge/benefits-of-homework-14030.html

(2006, July 2). Less Homework, More Trouble. USA Today. Retrieved from

http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/opinion/editorials/2006-07-02-our-view_x.htm

 

 

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Sandy Lowe: Why I’m Optimistic about Education Today

May 13, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Guest, Important Posts

Sandy Lowe is currently serving as board member at the district.  She has two sons that graduated from Corona del Sol.  Mrs. Lowe continues to be active in the public school system.  She has B.S. in Social Work and an M.B.A.

 

Why I’m Optimistic about Education Today

Sandy Lowe

May 10, 2013

 

All one has to do to negate just one article about what is bad in education is to look at our students today, especially in TempeUnionHighSchool District.  What they will find are:

 

Students that are excelling beyond anyone’s expectations in all fields whether it be Math, Bio-Med, Science, Art, Music, or Culinary (just to mention a few).  They are passionate about learning and have the support to succeed.

 

Students that overcome serious obstacles in their young lives, and still manage to not only graduate, but earn scholarships and awards for their courage, effort and success.   These are the kids that face personal addictions, violence, homelessness, bullying and abuse, but manage to stay focused on learning because they understand the significant impact education has on one’s life.

 

Students that overcome physical, emotional and learning challenges in our classrooms.   It may take them longer to pass a test, a class or even to graduate, but they do despite sometimes an uphill battle.

 

Students that are selfless in giving their time to help others.  They give up free time and their talents to help others in their community that is less fortunate then they are.

 

And standing close behind all of these achievements are families, teachers, principals and community volunteers that lend moral and/or financial support, a helping hand in passing a tough class, or perhaps just a word of kindness on a day that isn’t going so well.  It’s that special teacher that buys clothing for a needy student or stays late every day to tutor a failing student (without anyone knowing) or  that principal that finds a way to help a family struggling with a tragedy that  truly makes a difference and gives us reasons to celebrate.  There will always be challenges in our lives, but the good news is we continue to move forward with optimism about the future because of our outstanding students!

 

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Student Engagement

May 10, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Fine Arts, Public Education Programs

Almost every high school in the U.S. offers some type of extracurricular activity- music, sports, and academic clubs, etc. These activities provide opportunities for students to learn the values of individual and group responsibility, physical strength and endurance, diversity, and competition. These extracarriculars provide a channel for reinforcing the lessons learned in the classroom, allowing students to apply academic skills in a real-world context, and are thus considered part of a well-rounded education that public schools include.

It is important that each child is given an equal opportunity to participate in extra courses beyond the classroom. According to the National Center for Education Statistics, “Virtually all public schools have extracurricular activities available for students, including sports, performing arts, publications, and honors societies. Furthermore, despite concerns about scarce resources in schools serving poor students, no important differences in availability of these activities were found” (Finn 2005). Regardless of whether the schools attended are large or small, in rural, urban, or suburban settings, they all have extra programs to offer students.

Research included in author Lamborn Brown’s book, Putting School in Perspective, suggest that participation in extracurricular activities may increase students’ sense of engagement or attachment to their schools, and thereby decrease the likelihood of school failure and dropping out. The National Education Longitudinal Study found that there is a strong correlation between extracurricular participation and student engagement at public schools, and it is important that all students have this opportunity. This study continued to explain the relationship between activities and students’ success in school: “Indicators of successful participation in school include academic achievement, consistent attendance, and aspirations for continuing education beyond high school. Extracurricular participation was positively associated with each of these success indicators among public high school students” (O’Brien 2008).  During the first semester of school, participants reported better attendance than their non-participating classmates. Students who are involved are three times as likely to perform in the top quartile on a composite math and reading assessment compared to those who are not. These statistics support the claim that students who are involved in school activities, are more likely to succeed.

While looking at the positives of being involved in extracurriculars, it is also important to see who is taking advantage of them. Keleese Edwards explains this further in her article Student Activities for Students at Risk: “About four of every five students are involved in at least one extra activity. Sports have the widest participation, followed by performing arts and academic clubs. Honor societies, publications, and student government are less popular, but still important and effective for students” (Edwards 2000). Although differences in availability of extracurricular opportunities between less affluent and more affluent schools were almost nonexistent, students of low socioeconomic status (SES) are less likely to participate in activities. The involvement of low SES students is consistently lower than that of high SES students in each type of activity, with the exception of vocational or professional clubs, such as Future Teachers of America, in which low SES students were twice as likely to participate. Edwards continues: “Some researchers have suggested that the social context of the school might have a positive or negative influence on student behavior, depending on whether the individual student is in the relative minority or majority in the school. However, this data shows that regardless of their socioeconomic background, low SES students participate at the same rates whether they attend  a more or less affluent school” (Edwards 2000). Schools all throughout the nation have a wide variety of students, coming from all types of backgrounds, participating in extracurricular activities. These are the students who are excelling and showing outstanding performance.

It is clear that participation and success are strongly associated. This is evidenced by participants’ better attendance and higher levels of achievement. The data indicates that differences in involvement are not related to differences in availability, as extracurricular activities are available to virtually all high school students; regardless of the affluence, size, location or minority status of the schools students attend. Public schools have such a wide variety of extra opportunities, and benefit all students. It is important that students are aware and encouraged to be involved.

 

 

References

Edward, Kl., & D’Onofrio, A. (2000). Retrieved from Student Activities for Students At

Risk. Reston, VA: National Association of Secondary School Principals.

Finn, J. D., & Rock, D. A. (n.d.). (2005). Retrieved from

http://www.viriya.net/jabref/resilience/Academic_success_among_students_at_ri

k_for_school_failure.pdf

Karweit, N., & Hansell, S. (n.d). (2004). Retrieved from “School Organization and

Friendship Selection,” in Friends in School, ed. Joyce Epstein and Nancy

Karweit, New York: Academic Press.

Lamborn, S.D., Brown, B.B., Mounts, N.S., & Steinberg, L. (1992). Retrieved from

Putting School in perspective: Student engagement and achievement in American

secondary schools.

O’Brien, E. (n.d.). (2008).  Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs95/web/95741.asp

 

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Recess, Affecting the Recesses of Student Minds

May 10, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Athletics, Public Education Programs

The future, a concept inconceivable to some but fully embraced by others, is something everyone desires to be faultless. In order to create a prosperous society in the future, it is first necessary to assure that those living in the society are well-rounded. How do we do this? We begin with children who are bursting with potential. Recess is the key ingredient for creating the model student, in addition to establishing the fundamentals for crafting the model adult later in life. Public school administrators, who offer recess to their students, also offer an opportunity for physical and mental success.

It is evident that due to the economic decline adults have been reducing their time spent at home and increasing their time spent at work. Because they are not at home, adults are unable to supervise or encourage their children to play outside. The Archives of Pediatric & Adolescent Medicine conducted a survey which Greg Seaman summarized: “In interviews with almost 9,000 parents, researchers discovered that only 51 percent of children went outside to walk or play once a day with either parent” (Seaman, n.d.). Therefore, children are locked indoors, protected by the safety of sedentary walls. While at home, children succumb to static activities such as watching television or playing video games. Because they lack the opportunity to venture outside, children ought to have access to other sources of exercise and creativity. Children essentially have two homes, one which consists of the nuclear family, and the other including classmates and teachers. If one’s home is incapable of fulfilling the needs of the child, the other should pick up the slack. In order to affirm such goals, school administrators must provide recess for each child.

As simple and innocent as recess is, administrators seem to have difficulty wrapping their minds around the necessity of this play time. Due to this ignorance, playground equipment is diminishing and has even become extinct in some schools. Many argue that equipment is too expensive and requires costly repairs. However, Adams, author of Recess Makes Kids Smarter, explains that blacktop can be painted for less than $5,000 with different games and activities that foster creativity and more importantly, activity in general. Children do not need fancy toys or a 10 foot spiral slide. What they need, is time to run outside and to invent games of their own. Exercising the body and mind is vital medicine for their susceptible state of life. In The Value of School Recess and Outdoor Play, the author plays devil’s advocate, claiming that recess “is a waste of time better spent on academics, that playground injuries promote lawsuits, [and] that children are at an increased risk of coming in contact with threatening strangers while outdoors.” An occasional injury may occur on the playground, but has the question been asked, how many children would suffer from mental and physical injuries over time, if recess were eliminated? The answer: every student would experience some sort of grievance. As recess time and equipment are stripped away, obesity and lack of attention creep closer into the lives of once exuberant children.

When play is placed on the sidelines, so are academics and physical fitness. The sequence of events is tumultuous.  Down time is essential even in the workforce: breaks are enforced in order to increase productivity. If adults, who have lengthy attention spans and a fully matured brain, require breaks, it is imperative that developing children have time to relax their mind and are able to freely express themselves. Williams, author of Recess in Schools: Disposable or Essential? confirms that recess “has shown to be extremely beneficial for children with special needs and diagnosed attention deficit disorders.” By releasing large amounts of their energy outside of the classroom, students are able to cease fidgeting and disruptions, leaving them clear minded with the capability to focus on school work. Long days are accompanied by stress. Hours of constant cramming and overwhelming standards set by the community can be strenuous at such a young age. It has been proven that high stress levels during childhood can result in depression later in life. Students fortunate enough to partake in recess exhibit the opposite of these detrimental results.

Children who have yet to be robbed of recess, exhibit such characteristics: “are less fidgety and more on task, have improved memory and more focused attention, develop more brain connections, learn negotiation skills, exercise leadership, teach games, take turns, and learn to resolve conflicts, [and] are more physically active before and after school” (Adams, n.d.).

These admirable traits describe the model student. However, school administrators who outlaw recess are ultimately crippling their students and setting them up for failure.

Stationary lifestyles have grown increasingly more common as the use of technology has been implemented into daily life. Technological advancements have resulted in children occupying a substantial part of their day surfing the internet or watching television: “Childhood obesity has more than tripled in the past 30 years” (Williams n.d.). This startling truth is something that those in power agree needs to be changed. However, few seem to act seriously upon this threat to the health of the future generations. Many claim that students have the opportunity to venture outside after school hours. However, “studies have shown that students who are more active during school hours are more likely to stay active after school hours than students who have no physical activities” (Williams n.d.). By eliminating recess, stationary habits are promoted and more likely to be practiced by the youth. If this trend continues, it is highly likely that these children will encounter complications in health such as: type two diabetes, stroke, osteoarthritis, and several types of cancer once they reach adulthood. It is evident that mental and physical health is impaired once recess is abandoned, and some school administrators enable these poor lifestyle choices.

School is highly valued because of its sole effort is to promote education that students can eventually utilize in the career world. When entering adulthood and searching for an occupation, it is necessary to have: communication, imagination, cooperation and socialization skills in order to be hired. However, if school administrators exterminate recess, they are not only robbing children of their physical capabilities, but their aptitude for creative and intuitive thinking along with their communal skills. During recess, children freely interact with others and invent their own unstructured games. These games along with pretend play develop skills necessary for the future.  Business owners seek non-conformers, those who can add an edge of competition and fresh-thinking to the company. In addition, business owners look to hire those who work well with others. It is difficult to develop teamwork in a classroom that consists solely of structured lecture time, deprived of any individuality. Carlee Adams, author of Recess Makes Kids Smarter interviewed Nelly Torres, a parent of a first and a fourth grader in the Chicago Public Schools. Torres commented that recess “taught me how to get along with others- whites, African-Americans. Nowadays, kids don’t know how to socialize among other groups.” Torres’s comment revolves around observations of her own children and is a common, yet troubling opinion. Recess requires collaboration, whether it is assigning roles in a game of hide-and-go-seek, or taking turns on the swings. Recess fosters originality and socialization-skills, which are assets highly valued in the business world.

Many, but not all public school administrators have acknowledged the numerous repercussions (previously discussed) of eliminating recess. In order to cope with the faulty schedule, some schools have introduced: short exercise breaks, a longer school schedule, or have hired recess coaches. Michelle Obama’s “Let’s Move!” initiative to combat childhood obesity cooperates with public schools; it promotes the importance of short exercise breaks during the day, and the priority of physical activity, including recess.

Goodwin, author of After Years of Recess Erosion, Schools try to get Kids Moving Again, explains how a public school in New York has been inspired by “Let’s Move!”; “Geller [teacher at PS166] cobbled together $5,000 in grants from New York City’s education department and other sources to institute regular two minute physical activity bursts every morning, which the school calls “brain breaks.” Teachers are also trying to add another 15 minutes of other exercise, particularly Tai Chi movements, as a way to compensate for the school’s infrequent recess, which leaves some of the children restless and antsy.”

Geller’s effort to relinquish play time for children, demonstrates that not everyone is neglecting childhood fitness. Brain breaks and Tai Chi may not be the ideal recess; however, any activity is better than remaining stationary.

In addition to Michelle Obama’s and Geller’s support, the National Wildlife Federation has launched their “Ranger Rick Restores Recess Campaign.” Burnette, author of Bring Daily Recess Back, informs her audience that “National Wildlife Federation will be advocating the return of daily recess to our nation’s schools by working with state legislatures and state boards of education to implement policies that ensure recess for elementary students. This initiative is an integral part of NWF’s goal to get 10 million more kids outside over the next three years” (Burnette, 2013).

The NWF recognizes and condones the importance of recess; therefore, is striving to restore childhood creativity and fitness. In order to achieve success, the NWF has outlined a few goals: each student, not excluding those with poor grades nor behavioral issues, will receive at least 20 minutes per day of recess; recess will be scheduled in addition to, not in replacement of lunch and physical education periods; recess equipment must be safe and outdoor; and students must have access to a natural play area. These requirements assure that every child- rich, poor, black, white, misbehaved, or well-behaved, has the opportunity to put aside their differences and explore the great outdoors together.

Some public school administrators, who value time spent outside, have begun to extend the school day in order to accommodate recess time. For instance, a low-income public school in South Lawrence, Massachusetts guarantees that their “students get two hours of physical activity each day, including a 20 minute recess, to break up their 80 minute blocks of academic classes. But in order to fit in all the exercise, the school has had to expand to an eight-hour day” (Goodwin, 2013). This compromise meets children’s academic and physical requirements. One of the school founders, Thomas Bean, has reported that attendance and academic performance have recovered impeccably since the alteration of their schedule. Children look forward to having a daily recess, which staggers the long periods of classroom time. By having breaks throughout the day, students also renew their focus upon returning to the classroom.

Chicago public schools are now following this trend of reinstalling recess. Lengthening the day allows room for playtime. Every Chicago public school allots at least twenty minutes of recess for the students. However, time is not the only aspect necessary for a quality recess. Equipment and staff are essential. Many Chicago public schools no longer have any recess equipment and are lacking staff members to monitor break times. In order to combat this deficiency, recess is sometimes held in the school parking lot or at a local park. Jump ropes, balls, hula-hoops, etc. are supplied in order to occupy children. Gutierrez, member of Channel 7 ABC News, covers the story, Recess returns to Chicago Public Schools. She addresses the staff shortages by interviewing a “Recess Coach.” Coach Easter explained: “We introduce games, teach them the rules to all the games, but also we teach them how to interact with each other” (2011). These coaches are hired in order to ensure students’ safety, dissuade idleness, and to mediate quarrels. Exercise breaks, extending the school day, and hiring recess coaches are the first few incentives to revive the fruits that recess once bore.

The endeavors to achieving daily recess in every public school have not full affect. In order to obtain a brighter future for the younger generations, it is vital, that children develop the skills that recess foster. Such skills entail: creativity, communication, leadership, love of nature, physical fitness, and a healthy attention span. As a member of society, it is our responsibility to guarantee the future is in good hands. These hands must be those of past students who have sported calluses from monkey bars, and whose finger nails were once embedded with sand. An online article, Bring Back Recess, highlights simple measures anyone can take to help the cause of brining recess back. Being informed and dedicated is the first step. The second step is getting other parents involved. The article advices the reader to: “Contact the head of your PTA or other parents association.” Team work is necessary to tackle this problem. Third, by talking to administrators and shining a light on the benefits of recess, those in power will feel motivated to take action. Lastly, alerting the media can promote widespread knowledge on the issue at hand. In times of trouble, competent communities will reunite and address the situation, no matter how cumbersome, until it is resolved. By following these steps, school administrators will feel the pressure to reincorporate daily recess.

Recess is the time when children are allowed to be what their name and reputation entail- free-spirited. However, this reputation is slowly becoming a misguided and misrepresented shadow of the past. Children have moved onto a more cliché and predictable lifestyle- one that is unhealthy for their present state and their future. Devoid of recess, a hollow human being is produced, crafted from long classroom hours and a stationary home life.  “Ignoring the developmental functions of unstructured outdoor play denies children the opportunity to expand their imaginations beyond the constraints of the classroom” (Education.com, n.d.). Because children are incapable of developing ingenuity at such a vital state in life, it is impossible for them to utilize creativity as adults. The youth have adopted the belief that life is sedentary. Therefore, they too have grown inactive. In order to spark the youthful vitality that once ran rampant throughout students, all school administrators must reinstall and enforce an allotted time for recess during the school day.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Adams, C. (n.d.). Recess Makes Kids Smarter | Scholastic.com. Retrieved April 18, 2013, from http://www.scholastic.com/teachers/article/recess-makes-kids-smarter

Bring back recess. (n.d.). Retrieved April 20, 2013, from http://www.playworks.org/make-recess-count/resources/time-restore-recess

Burnette, M. (2013, January 29). Bring daily recess back. National Wildlife Federation. Retrieved April 20, 2013, from http://www.nwf.org/news-and-magazines/media-center/news-by-topic/get-outside/2013/01-29-13-bring-daily-recess-back.aspx

Education.com (n.d.). The Value of School Recess and Outdoor Play. Retrieved April 18, 2013, from http://www.education.com/reference/article/Ref_Value_School_Recess/

Goodwin, L. (2013, March 22). After years of recess erosion, schools try to get kids moving again. [Web log message]. Retrieved April 20, 2013, from http://news.yahoo.com/blogs/lookout/years-recess-erosion-schools-try-kids-moving-again-085309920.html

Gutierrez, T. (Member of News Team). (2011). Recess returns to chicago public schools [Television series episode]. In ABC News. Chicago: WLS-TV/DT. Retrieved April 20, 2013 from, http://abclocal.go.com/wls/story?section=news/local&id=8407058

Seaman, G. (n.d.). Are Children Spending Enough Time Outdoors? | Eartheasy Blog. Retrieved April 18, 2013, from http://eartheasy.com/blog/2012/04/are-children-spending-enough-time-outdoors/

Williams, S. (n.d.). Recess in schools: Disposable or essential?. Informally published manuscript, Retrieved April 18, 2013, from http://www.ecu.edu/cs-lib/reference/instruction/upload/Third-Place-Paper.pdf

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Public Education: A Brief History and a Glimpse Into the Future

May 9, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, History of Public Education, School Structure

The history of public education in the United States dates back to the mid-1600s, when the pilgrims of the General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony instated that any town of 50 families or more must have an elementary school. Originally the goal of these public schools was to educate children on the lessons of the Bible and morals of the Calvinist religion. However, clearly there has been a massive shift in the goals and objectives adapted by modern public schools. How did the nation start with a meager slew of elementary schools that only focused on the teachings of the Bible, and end up where it is now: a vast expansion of all varieties of schools that teach anything from speaking Mandarin Chinese to Physics, Calculus, and Advanced Composition? The history of public education in America is an extensive one, but the twists and turns and obstacles faced along the way have slowly molded it into the impressive system it is today. What started as a Biblical institution for upper class Americans slowly began molding itself into an equal opportunity system which allows children to socialize and educate themselves in order to become fully-functioning and successful members of society.

It all began with a question. Hypothetically, that is. That question was of course, how can a system be created in which the general public can receive an equal capacity of learning as the upper class without burning tremendous holes in their pockets?  In 1779, Thomas Jefferson fabricated a plan. A two track educational system: one for laboring and one for learning. However, he proposed to shell out small amounts of scholarships to the brightest of the bunch which would allow for lower class kids to get an upper class education. It was not perfect, but it was a start. In 1790, before the nation had drafted a collective Constitution, the state of Pennsylvania declared that it would provide free public education. However, it would only be for underprivileged children- the rich still had to pay for their children to attend school. In 1817, a greater cry sounded out from the masses at a Boston Town Meeting. There was a demand for the establishment of free primary schools that was supported by much of the middle class. However, with little of the lower class understanding the importance of nationwide education, they were unwilling to pay the taxes necessary to fund these would-be new schools (Applied Research Center). The economic situation of the people at this time was not stable enough to make take such a formidable step towards educational progress.

Finally, in the 1840’s, the gears of compulsory education began to start turning. Because there were so many Irish and German immigrants of the Catholic religion migrating into the country, Protestant Americans felt the pressure to preserve their religious ideals. By creating more public schools, the Protestant faith could be better taught and dispersed throughout the minds of the nation’s future people, as well as preserve democracy which the American people felt was threatened by Catholicism.  The school movement began to take hold of many intellectuals of the Progressive movement who believed that education was the key to a developed society. They popularized the idea of the state being completely in charge of the education of its citizens (Smith 2013). With the state leading the way, public education could expand in a way like never before by incorporating things such as math and science. Schools would no longer be restricted by the strict bindings of religious institutions.

As of now, public education has grown tremendously. The number of children attending public elementary and secondary schools is 49.6 million, and the ways of paying for these kids to go to school has also changed over the years. As of now, property tax accounts for the majority of money going towards public education (Watson 2008). Although critics claim that America is losing its “edge” over competitors around the globe, there are many reforms underway to help give education the boost it needs. Whether it be moving vocational education to community college, or even going so far as to eliminate the 12th grade as some are suggesting, there are ways to patch up the system and return it to its former glory. President Lyndon Johnson said that “public education is the engine that powers all economic growth in our nation,” and of course, he was right. Without public education, the entire system of the country would collapse (Wright 2012). Before public education, the American public was ignorant and trapped in the same monotonous lifestyle. However, with the introduction of this free schooling, the country saw a major growth spurt in intellect and economy. Yet, the journey is not complete. The United States still has a while to go until it achieves the education perfection that it is seeking, but as of now the American people can be satisfied of what has been accomplished thus far.

 

References

Applied Research Center – Historical Timeline of Public Education in the US. (n.d.). Applied Research Center – Home. Retrieved April 12, 2013, from http://www.arc.org/content/view/100/217/

Smith, H. (2013, February 13). A Brief History of Public Education: School Choice in America Part II | FreedomWorks. FreedomWorks . Retrieved April 12, 2013, from http://www.freedomworks.org/blog/rousseau/a-brief-history-of-public-education-school-choice

Watson, S. (2008, February 13). HowStuffWorks “Public Schools”. HowStuffWorks “People”. Retrieved April 23, 2013, from http://people.howstuffworks.com/public-schools3.htm

Wright, L. (2012, February 18). Restructuring Public Education for the 21st Century. National Center for Policy Analysis. Retrieved April 22, 2013, from www.ncpa.org/pdfs/ib107.pdf

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Serving Up Some Grub

May 9, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Health

High school students may remember the plastic-wrapped bean burritos and the watery apple juice they were served during their elementary school years. Although some foods prepared by school cafeterias are delicious, they are often unhealthy and do not provide enough nutrients for growing children. With one-third of the nation’s children being obese, many Americans have been demanding a drastic change for healthier foods in school. In order to meet the childhood obesity issue, the national government has been implementing effective modifications that take steps towards creating healthier foods for schools across the country.

One of the most significant programs that has brought tinges of green vegetables and colorful fruits into lunches is the National School Lunch Program. The organization, which was established by President Truman in 1846, serves more than 100,000 public and non-profit private schools with meals that are either nutritionally balanced, low-cost, or free. After the given proposal for change in 2011, the government association has finalized its plans for taking small steps towards healthier school foods: “The new meal pattern goes into effect at the beginning of SY 2012‐13, and increases the availability of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains in the school menu” (NSLP 2012). One major aspect missing from school lunches is the lack of these three major parts of the food pyramid, a diagram of a balanced diet. With the increased availability these different food groups along with the milk and meats already served, the students are now more likely to have a healthier lunch. With changes to a national program that affects millions of students across the country, the positive effects are able to spread some green across the nation’s youthful seeds.

Another national entity that has gone through positive changes for children is the Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program. Although the program is only offered to elementary schools that have 50% of students receiving reduced-price or free lunches, the added fruits and vegetables have shown a positive comparison to students who are not participating in the program (Table 1). Americans who look at the issue from an economic standpoint believe that the fruits and vegetables will not be consumed by the students who prefer foods like burgers and pizzas, and then the produce will be thrown away. However, the data proves that students under the Fresh Fruit and Vegetables Program willingly eat the produce that is offered to them. Individual school districts willing to partake in the Fresh Fruit and Vegetables Program can alleviate their concern over wasted food. The federal policy provides a significant portion of healthy foods to elementary school children who are willing to partake in the change for a better diet.

Table 1

Cups of Fruit and Vegetables Consumed Daily, 2010-2011

nicole donos graph 1

Note. The data on produce consumption is adapted from “Evaluation of the Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program – Summary” by Bartlett S., Olsho L., Patlan K.L., Blocklin M., and Klerman

J., 2013, United States Department of Agriculture, pp. 2.

The acceptance of these national benefits has not gone as smoothly as the Washington government wanted. One dispute that tainted the proposal phase for changes in the national programs is that students might not consume all of the foods that are given to them. The nutrition and wellness programs of the Illinois State Board of Education have provided an example of the “offer vs. serve” concept for the National School Lunch Program, where students are given options instead of being served a certain amount of each food group and can choose to decline some part of the meal but must keep at least a portion of produce (Fig. 2). Under the proposal, students have a choice in the foods that they eat, and the likeliness of food being dumped and wasted is reduced.  All of the dietary requirements may not be met when a student chooses to reduce the size of the meal. However, he may still change the amount of food or the type of foods that he eats any other day. The “offer vs. serve” concept instigated decreases the chance of food being wasted and provides an opportunity to students in all grade levels to have a choice in the foods they eat.

Figure 2

Example of a Reimbursed Meal under the Offer versus Serve for Students 9-12 Grade

   nicole donos 2

nicole donos 3

Note. The figure is adapted from “National School Lunch Program: Offer versus Serve- 9-12 Grade Grouping” provided by the Illinois State Board of Education, pp.6, 8.

The concern for student health has brought positive changes to national policies for school meals. An example of a federal policy is The National School Lunch Program which daily provides for millions of students, and all changes to the program have an extensive impact. Another governmental entity is the Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program that provides the produce needed for a balanced diet. Students under the “offer versus serve” option have the opportunity to make changes to their menus and maintain a healthier diet. The national government, working with individual state governments, has made substantial changes to its policies so children have the chance to live lives free from the sequela of obesity.

 

References

Bartlett, S., Olsho, L., Patlan, K., Blocklin, M., & Klerman, J. US Department of Agriculture,

(2013). Evaluation of the fresh fruit and vegetable program – summary. Retrieved from

website: http://www.fns.usda.gov/Ora/menu/Published/CNP/FILES/FFVP_Summary.pdf

Illinois. State Board of Education. National School Lunch Program: Offer versus Serve- 9-12

Grade Grouping. Retrieved 11 April 2013 from:

http://www.isbe.state.il.us/nutrition/ppt/nslp-ovs-9-12-pres.pdf

United States. Department of Agriculture. (2012, August). National School Lunch

Program. Retrieved 11 April 2013 from:

http://www.fns.usda.gov/cnd/lunch/aboutlunch/nslpfactsheet.pdf

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Money Saved

May 9, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Health, Important Posts, Laws Affecting Public Education

Education throughout the history of mankind has done wonders. Without education paving the way for new advances in medicine, technology, and philosophy, human culture would be a fragment of what it is today. However, these progressions often overshadow another benefit to education such as money. Public education rids people of many unwanted crimes while saving the government and tax payers countless amounts of money.

Those who receive a high school diploma have access to a myriad of benefits. One of these benefits is the ability to find work more regulatory than those without a degree. Thus, without a degree it is easier to slip into poverty: “Social scientists generally agree that unemployment, especially persistent unemployment, leads to individual poverty and that residential concentrations of poverty lead to higher crime” (Labor Markets, Employment and Crime, 1997). According to the Office of Justice Programs, unemployment can lead to poverty. Unfortunately, poverty can lead to crime which in turn costs the government money. Without providing a basic high school education to young citizens, the community is sentencing many of them to a life of crime. Therefore, the importance of public high schools is greater than ever. With more students getting a valuable education, the schooling will provide our community with less crime and more law abiding citizens. This also reveals another benefit that can actually help the economy.

Today in America, millions of people are in our prison systems for various crimes. Some for petty theft, and some more serious crimes, like murder. It costs a huge amount of money, resources, and man power to run these prisons.

Table 1. Percent of Criminals

thomas forrest graph

Note 1. Statistics on inmates convicted and unconvicted. Based on percentages. 1,822,555 inmates were surveyed for this information.

This is why public education is so important to the community and even the economy. This demonstrates this correlation between education and those who are sentenced to prison. On average around forty percent of these inmates do not have a high school diploma; likewise ,around ninety percent do not have a college degree. These huge percentages of uneducated individuals make up the majority of the prison system. By putting more focus on public education, a profound difference can be made in the lives of these children.

Educating the masses can provide the country with much needed benefits. With less people committing crimes and providing their efforts toward useful jobs, it will increase the economy while keeping the community safe. Providing a basic education to our citizens is a win-win situation.

                                                                 

References

Characteristics of inmates: Education of prison and jail inmates. (2005). Retrieved from

http://www.libraryindex.com/pages/2528/Characteristics-Inmates-EDUCATION-PRISON-JAIL-INMATES.html

National Institute of Justice . (2007). Labor markets, employment, and crime. Retrieved from

http://www.nij.gov/pubs-sum/000166.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Get Your Head Out of the Books

May 9, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Public Education Programs

 In every nation, an exceptional education is what everyone should strive for. In fact, most of the world’s leaders compete to have the smartest students on the globe. These statistics of the “smartest” countries are measured by the nations’ standardized test scores. Although sky-high test scores and grades are outstanding, they are not the only important attribute of a great student, nor are they the only aspect that defines a person’s intelligence. A student’s skills outside of the school walls also define his or her overall intellect. In truth, the best colleges will take an average student who has done activities outside of school over an honors student who only spends his or her time buried in textbooks. This is because they desire a student who is well-rounded and can handle the schedule of various tasks. For academic and various health-related reasons, the incorporation of a variety of extracurricular activities and schoolwork gives students an advantage in school and future achievements by forming them into well rounded and competitive individuals.

When students attend beneficial activities outside of school, they tend to be more successful and involved. Taking part in school functions makes the students more aware of their community and their peers, keeping them connected to important events or opportunities. Moreover, involvement in school keeps the students from committing harmful or negative actions off school hours. There have been many studies on the effects of extracurricular activities, and all of them have concluded with similar results as the one done by the NationalCenter for Education Statistics (NCES) study of public school senior successes.

Table 1. Percentage of public school seniors reporting selected indicators of school success by participation and nonparticipation in extracurricular activities, 1992

-----------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                    Non-
Indicators                                      Participants    participants
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
No unexcused absences*                             50.4             36.2
Never skipped classes*                             50.7             42.3
Have a GPA of 3.0 or above                         30.6             10.8
Highest quartile on a composite math and
 reading assessment                                29.8             14.2
Expect to earn a bachelor's degree
 or higher                                         68.2             48.2
-----------------------------------------------------------------------

* During first semester of their senior year.

Note. The average percentage of high school senior success, comparing seniors who participate in extracurricular activities and those who do not, was studied by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), June 1995, Extracurricular Participation and Student Engagement, retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs95/web/95741.asp.

Because students are engaged in school-related activities alongside their bookwork, they are able to create their own schedule that fits both commitments. This helps train the students to be more organized in college as well as future jobs. Furthermore, the subtle lessons and skills they acquire from these activities flow into their work and improve their educational status, as seen in the above data. Above all, when students participate in positive extracurricular activities, their optimistic behaviors can be seen in their school and social relationships as well.

Not only can extracurricular activities increase the chances of academic success, but they can also build a student’s sense of self-awareness. Whether it is a sport, a club, or a music ensemble, supplementary events are great ways “to have fun, make new friends, learn about yourself, and open the door to possible future careers” (PBS, 2005). While participating, students are able to explore their likes and dislikes, thus, creating a more stable state of mind that will help them discover their own path to travel on. For example, Andrew Mirasol of the University of Michigan stated that religious private schools and some public schools have faith-based groups that are “effective in playing a role in forming identity” (Mirasol, 2006). Not only are these students solidifying a relationship with their religion, but they are also forming bonds with other students of the same belief. Clubs that are not faith-based can do the same. With an array of educational groups, students can discover more about themselves while they search for what is right for them. When the students find a group where they fit in, their newfound relationships give them a sense of belonging and stability which is vital for a growing teenager’s wellbeing.

Along with self-awareness, additional activities outside of school can prepare students for the real world. Test results and grades are excellent ways to mark a child’s understanding of critical subjects; however, the student’s secondary activities teach them bonus skills that can benefit them later on:

“Christy Lleras, a professor of human and community development, says that ‘soft skills’ such as sociability, punctuality, conscientiousness and an ability to get along with others, along with participation in extracurricular activities, are better predictors of earnings and higher educational achievement later in life than having good grades and high standardized test scores” (Ciciora, 2009).

In school, teachers constantly feed their pupils facts and test-taking skills but rarely have the opportunity to put their students in a real-life situation. For instance, thousands of students receive outstanding SAT and ACT scores because they were taught the subjects and have practiced positive test-taking strategies. Nevertheless, many of these students have difficulties with completing a thesis for their college applications or succeeding in a job interview. This is due to the fact that they are so trained to take standardized tests that they have trouble expressing their thoughts and answers in words. Out-of-school activities can help them learn additional skills that will make them more capable to communicate with others. Activities such as sports teach students how to be competitive, as well as how to become a teammate. Phil Ciciora, the Education Editor of the Illinois News Bureau claims that these skills will help give the students a drive to compete in the world’s economy and work properly with others: “employers value workers who can not only boast about their GPAs and SATs, but are also able to get along well with the public and co-workers” (Ciciora, 2009). It is the goal of millions of people to acquire a stable job; therefore, it is extremely important for incoming employees to learn the proper abilities to obtain any job of their choice. All across the globe, it is best for students to be well-rounded and find a happy medium between fun and work.

If a student only spends his or her time studying and writing papers, the work load will eventually lead to an overflow of stress. In some cases, the student’s environment can pressure them into committing to one subject more than the other. This is a common issue in most private schools: “Because they tend to be more academically rigorous, private high schools may wear down students” (NewsCore, 2012). When students are encouraged to “be the best,” some of them tend to take this very seriously, and they end up dedicating all their time to their school work. This sounds fine, but when students cannot find the time to take a break, socialize, or sleep for an appropriate amount of time, their minds will feel overworked, and the mental consequences could seriously harm their health. Conversely, if students only dedicate their lives to an outside activity, their grades will slip, giving them a lesser chance of passing their classes. Not only will this negatively affect their likelihood of finding a quality college, but this also increases the odds of them dropping out of school. This is why many public schools will suspend a student from his or her sport if he or she does not have high enough grades.  In order for students to maintain a healthy lifestyle and a solid education, it is essential for schoolwork and outside activities to walk hand-in-hand.

In order to achieve a successful future and become a more respectable person, supplementary activities are vital to the academic life of a student. Students are basically children growing into adults, discovering their place of belonging in the world, which is why it is important for them to look around their school and community in order to find their purpose. There is a saying that too much of anything can be harmful, and although these little expressions may seem cliché, they hold an immense amount of truth. If anyone spends too much time with one’s face in a book or one’s head in the clouds, that person will never truly get anywhere. If a variety of everything is mixed into one’s life, then that life generates meaning, and that individual is destined to go far.

 

References

Ciciora, P. (2009, March 25). Social Skills, Extracurricular Activities in High School Pay off Later in Life. News Bureau. Retrieved from http://news.illinois.edu/news/09/0325success.html.

Mirasol, A. (2006). Comparison of Private and PublicHigh Schools. Retrieved from http://sitemaker.umich.edu/mirasol.356/extracurricular_activities.

NationalCenter for Education Statistics (NCES). (1995, June). Extracurricular Participation and Student Engagement. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs95/web/95741.asp.

NewsCore. (2012, July 18). Decision Points: Public or PrivateHigh School? Fox Business. Retrieved from http://www.foxbusiness.com/personal-finance/2012/06/28/decision-points-public-or-private-high-school/.

PBS (2005). High School: Get Ectra-Curricular! It’s My Life. Retrieved from http://pbskids.org/itsmylife/school/highschool/article6.html.

 

 

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Keys to Life

May 9, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Athletics, Health, Public Education Programs

Participating in sports at a young age gives kids an opportunity to expand their minds, as well as their bodies, while becoming more comfortable with their social environment. Athletic involvement is key to any child’s future. Fortunately, public education offers all students the opportunity to take part in sports; this not only provides the child with an enjoyable activity but also a variety of social, mental, and physical benefits as well.

Students who partake in school sports are more likely to be socially interactive with their classmates and teachers. According to research by the U-M Cardiovascular Center “children who are physically active are more likely to demonstrate good social skills, such as leadership and empathy” (Kirkendoll, 2010). The ability to demonstrate these skills in a classroom is crucial. Unfortunately, it is quite rare. Often times, kids are too afraid to step up and take charge of a situation. This may be because the school environment is daunting, especially to young students. Sports can change a child’s outlook on school entirely. With a smaller group of people, atheletes have an easy time finding friends who have similar interests. Athletics make each participant work together ultimately resulting in a strong sense of comradery. The social skills discovered in sports allow children to make friends and prosper in their school environment.

The teenage years can be a difficult rollercoaster of self image disapproval. There have been many studies done on how to improve self-esteem levels, and “participation in sports seems to be something that positively correlates to higher self-confidence levels in both boys and girls” (Participation in Athletics= Higher Self Esteem). An elevated level of self esteem is important to students academic careers because they will not only enjoy their time at school but also focus more on their studies. Asking questions in class can be a very intimidating experience. Without the confidence to even raise their hands, students suffer immensely from low self esteem. Their grades will plummet without the ability to ask a question when they do not understand a lesson. When confidence is gained in practice, this is mirrored in their classes, giving them the power to speak up. Students who partake in sports gain a higher sense of worth which benefits them on and off the field.

Sports also encourage athletes to take better care of their bodies by avoiding dangerous activities. According Jeanne Rose joining a youth sport causes students to be “less likely to engage in risky behaviors, which can harm his or her health. A child that is involved in youth sports will be more likely to stay away from drugs and alcohol during his or her school years” (Rose, 2011). This is because the possibility of injury is higher when doing questionable activities which would prevent them from being able to participate. Athletes tend to stay away from drugs and alcohol because they have the ability to lower the student’s athletic performance. Any serious athlete would consider the negative outcome of less playing time and decide it is not worth the risk. According to Yahoo Sports “children get involved in risky activities because they are bored, and might not feel very good inside” (Rose, 2011). Playing a sport will take away the extra time that children have to become bored and consider trying drugs. Sports will also raise their self esteem causing them to be less likely to use drugs as a way to feel better about themselves, or avoid negative thoughts. Children who join school sports will avoid drugs and other risky activities including alcohol because they will negatively impact their playing ability.

Not only do youth sports reduce the opportunity for dangerous behavior but also provide an environment where children can learn skills needed to be successful in life. Coley states that sports teach children “how to work together and how to deny the wants of an individual for the good of the team” (Coley, 2007). Teamwork is an attribute that will be needed for the rest of their lives. In school, group projects will be assigned that require students to cooperate to produce decent grades. In a job, employees must work together to increase sales or expand their clientele. Another life skill gathered from youth sports is how to win and lose. On one hand, “sports can give children a taste of what winning feels like” (Coley, 2007). This will create a desire to duplicate that positive feeling in other areas of life. On the other hand, “after a loss, children learn how to hold their heads up with dignity and congratulate the winning team” (Coley, 2007). In life, there will always be winning and losing. It is important to have the ability to take both with dignity, and, when it is a loss, work harder to have a better result next time. One of the most important attributes taught in sports is the capability to take instructions. Taking commands from a coach “preps a child to take orders later in life from professors, military commanders, government officials, and bosses” (Coley, 2007). No matter where a student goes in life there will be an authority figure barking orders. Overall, sports teach many life skills that will be used for the rest of their participants’ lives.

Athletes learn to set goals for the team and themselves which allows them to set objectives for their own lives and ultimately have a more fulfilling future. They also learn how to work hard to make their ambition a reality. Aspirations in sports show that the child knows what he wants and is willing to work diligently to achieve it. Kelly Anton writes that athletes who are not motivated to develop their skills “will probably not achieve their potential, and inadequate skills will not allow athletes to achieve their goals” (Anton). Setting goals shows athletes that their dreams are possible if they are willing to put in the effort to reach them. However, learning to establish objectives can be challenging without the help of athletics. Figures such as “parents and coaches help the children set targets to reach those goals” (Lee, 2013). School sports assist students in learning to set goals for themselves which will cause them to have a higher level of athletic ability. Ultimately, it teaches them how to work hard and achieve their objectives in life.

The prevailing benefit of youth sports is the benefit to overall health. This can be an immediate and long term advantage. In the short term, athletics reduce the amount of worry that a student experiences. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention advises that “playing sports may reduce anxiety and depression and promote positive mental health” (Poole, 2011). Exams and homework contribute to the majority of a student’s fretfulness about school. Physical activity releases endorphins which reduce this feeling of angst. Sports also contribute to a higher quality of life. Research shows that “teenagers who are physically active and play on sports teams are more satisfied with their life” (Study Shows Physical and Mental Benefits of Sports Participation in Adolescents, 2010). When teenagers believe their lives are fulfilling, it lowers their likelihood of attempting suicide as well as increasing their confidence. According to an article writton by David Patullo “a decline in depressive symptoms has been shown in numerous studies to be a direct result of an increase in physical activity” (Patullo, 2010). Exercise can even save a life when it increases confidence. In the long term, physical activity in sports reduces the chances of developing certain diseases. When kids stay involved in youth sports “the likelihood of diseases such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, liver and renal disease will decrease significantly” (Health Benefits of Youth Sports, 2012). These will greatly affect the rest of these children’s lives. Still, there is a more significant health affect to engaging in physical activity. One of the most significant health benefits of getting a child involved in youth sports is that “it can decrease the risk of him or her becoming obese” (Rose, 2011). Exercising as children promotes healthy life-styles which they will continue into their adult lives. Participating in athletics benefits the child in the present with less stress and a satisfied outlook on life. Also the child’s future will be more fulfilling with a decreased chance of multiple life changing diseases.

The advantages of school sports include mental, physical, and social aspects. These attributes are not only crucial to childrens lives in school, but also their entire future. The skills taught in sports can be used in every area of life. Public school makes it possible for all students to participate in athletics and better their lives. Private schools encourage students to join their schools with the sole purpose of using their impressive athletic skill to better their sports programs. Public education hands the keys to a successful future over to its students when it allows everyone the opportunity to play a part in their sports.

 

References

Anton, Kelly. How to Increase Motivation and Performance through Goal Setting. Blues Youth Sports Scene. Retrieved from http://www.bluesyouthsportsscene.com/featured/how-to-increase-motivation-and-performance-through-goal-setting/.

Coley, Tiffany. (1 December 2007). How Sports Can Help Develop Life Skills in Children. Helium: Where Knowledge Rules. Retrieved from http://www.helium.com/items/727130-how-sports-can-help-develop-life-skills-in-children?page=2.

Kirkendoll, Shantell. (14 March, 2010). Research shows link between physical activity and social skills in children. University of Michigan Health System. Retrieved from http://www2.med.umich.edu/prmc/media/newsroom/details.cfm?ID=1513.

Lee, Donita. (6 March 2013). Top Seven Benefits of Youth Sports. The Empowerment Zone for Kids. Retrieved from http://empowermentzone4kids.info/top-7-benefits-of-youth-sports/.

Participation in Athletics= Higher Self Esteem. Women in Sports: Bowdoin and Beyond. Retrieved from http://www.bowdoin.edu/gender-women/student-research/women-in-sports-leah-ferenc-09/participation-in-athletics-higher-self-esteem.shtml.

Patullo, David. (13 February 2010). Benefits of Sports, Health and Fitness. EZineArticles.com. Retrieved from http://ezinearticles.com/?Benefits-of-Sports,-Health-and-Fitness&id=3753831.

Poole, Jennifer. (15 January 2011). What are the Health Benefits of Youth Sports? Live Strong .com. Retrieved from http://www.livestrong.com/article/357525-what-are-the-health-benefits-of-youth-sports/.

Rose, Jeanne. (13 December 2011). Three Health Benefits for a Child Playing Youth Sports. Yahoo Sports. Retrieved from http://sports.yahoo.com/top/news?slug=ycn-10667089.

(22 September 2010). Study Shows Physical and Mental Health Benefits of Sports Participation in Adolescents. News Medical. Retrieved from http://www.news-medical.net/news/20100922/Study-shows-physical-and-mental-health-benefits-of-sports-participation-in-adolescents.aspx.

(31 July 2012). Health Benefits of Youth Sports. YMCA of Central Florida. Retrieved from http://ymcacentralflorida.com/health-benefits-of-youth-sports-20733/.

 

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Early Childhood Development and Public Schools

May 9, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Public Education Programs, Reforms in Public Schools

Pre-K schools have helped improve the abilities of many students. There are many stages to the mental growth of a person, and many of these stages occur at a young age,  making the early development of children very important. The public education system helps to provide an early education for the public which encourages good habits for many children’s lives and will improve the overall well being of our nation if implemented.

Getting a head start in school helps with child development. Preschools and other programs have proven effects in tests, such as those conducted by Barnett from the Head Start Impact Society (HSIS): “ The estimated cognitive effects of nine months of Head Start range from 0.05 to 0.25 standard deviations” (Barnett 2008). This is based off of a large sample of children from ages 3 to 4.27 who were chosen to either go to a program or not. Barnett also states that in the study: “No evidence was found of any negative effects on socio-emotional development, and behavior problems and hyperactivity were significantly reduced (0.13 to 0.18 standard deviations) for 3-year-olds. Access to dental care was improved and child health, as reported by parents, was modestly improved (0.12 standard deviations) for 3-year-olds.”

As seen in this study, early childhood development programs have great gains for the students in the early stages of development. This includes development outside of just mental ability and makes the importance of early programs even greater.

Positive effects are also measured beyond just school. Graduation rates improve for those who have taken Pre-K, along with rates of getting jobs, and basically having a better quality of life in later stages. The study done by Laurie M. Anderson, Carolynne Shinn, and other doctors show their results here:

stephen gerrish graph

Figure 1. Anderson, L., Shinn, C., Fullilove, M., Scrimshaw, S., Fielding, J., Normand, J., Carande-Kulis, V. (2003). The Effectiveness of Early Childhood Development Programs.

As seen here, there are numerous effects taken from a little help early on in these programs, including having an income above the poverty line. This is getting more and more important because there is a fairly high rate of unemployment as this study was occurring. In 2011 the United States Census Bureau measured 11.8% unemployment. A universal head start program can lower this number, along with other statistics that are included in the table.

Of course, one of the major problems is funding. As of March 2009, only six states have had a publicly funded preschool program.This policy of only offering this to low income families is appealing to states because there is a higher reward to them in the long term than to a family who could afford a similar type of program. The main problem is getting the voters to endorse something that is aimed at those who have very low family incomes. Even though it would be at a low cost to them, it is hard for voters to help people other than themselves (Debra J. Ackerman, W. Steven Barnett, Laura E. Hawkinson, Kirsty Brown and Elizabeth A. McGonigle 2009). As revealed in Barnett’s 2008 analysis of multiple available tests and groups shows that the lowest income families have the greatest margin of improvement, although all groups gain positive effects. After his large analysis of over 70 wide and varying tests, he concludes: “If a universal preschool program substantially increased the enrollment of disadvantaged children, however, the achievement gap might also be reduced” (Barnett 2008). A chance at lowering this gap would mean a better quality of life for everyone.

The importance of this early start is discussed by the National Scientific Council in January of 2007. They confirm that: “All of society would benefit from a coordinated effort to reduce significant inequalities in the skills of young children at school entry. Substantial progress toward this goal can be achieved by assuring high quality early learning experiences both at home and in community-based settings, through a range of parent education, family support, early care and education, preschool, and intervention services” (2007). This distinguished group of people have confirmed through the development of the brain overtime that early programs get healthy connections set up in the brain, which lead to a healthier lifestyle.

Public programs for children who are too young for kindergarten, but want the head start to be gained from early schooling, are starting to happen in several states. This helps not only improve later test scores and the academics of a state, but it also improves the wellbeing of the people who live in them. These programs should become nationwide, which would improve on many statistics such as raising employment and lowering the amount of welfare use. Even though it would be hard to make it available to all children, it would help those at the bottom of the economic ladder get raised out of poverty to a healthy income and life.

 

References

Anderson, L., Shinn, C., Fullilove, M., Scrimshaw, S., Fielding, J., Normand, J., Carande-Kulis, V. (2003). The Effectiveness of Early Childhood Development Programs. Retrieved from website: http://www.thecommunityguide.org/social/soc-AJPM-evrev-ecd.pdf

Barnett, S. (September 2008). Preschool Education and Its Lasting Effects:

Research and Policy Implications. Retrieved from website: http://greatlakescenter.org/docs/Policy_Briefs/Barnett_EarlyEd.pdf

Boynce, W., Cameron, J., Gunnar, M., Knudsen, E., Levitt, P., Lozoff, B., Nelson, C., Phillips, D., Shonkoff, J., Thompson, R. (January 2007). The Science of Early Childhood Development. Retrieved from website: http://www.cdph.ca.gov/healthinfo/healthyliving/childfamily/Documents/MO-ECCS-ScienceEarlyChildhoodDev.pdf

DeNavas-Walt, C., Proctor, B., Smith, J. (2012). Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance

Coverage in the United States: 2011. Retrieved from website: http://www.census.gov/prod/2012pubs/p60-243.pdf

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All Work and No Play

May 9, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Athletics, Health, Public Education Programs

All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy.  This common proverb professes the need for a little fun in life.  While attending school, it is important to realize that a well-rounded education involves more than strictly school work.  It is beneficial for a student to participate in other interests and activities.  Public school administrators know the importance of extracurricular activities. The National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS), provided evidence to the long time theory that extracurricular activities positively affect high school students.  It is because of this study, as well as similar studies, that public schools continue to encourage participation in extracurricular activities, and make them more accessible.  While participation in extracurricular activities correlate with a high success rate in school, they also appeal to many different types of students, and are, therefore, beneficial for the student’s current and future health.

In the 1992 NELS, researchers found a positive correlation with students who partake in after school activities and their success in school.  Students were more likely to attend college if they were part of other activities.  According to the National Center for Education and Statics:  “Participants were also more likely than nonparticipants to aspire to higher education: two-thirds of participants expected to complete at least a bachelor’s degree while about half of nonparticipants expected to do so” (NCES).  Those who participated in after school activities not only increased their likeliness to attend college, but they also strived in other aspects.

Table 1

—————————————————————————-

Non

Indicators                                      Participants    participants

—————————————————————————-

No unexcused absences*                             50.4             36.2

Never skipped classes*                             50.7             42.3

Have a GPA of 3.0 or above                         30.6             10.8

Highest quartile on a composite math and

reading assessment                                29.8             14.2

Expect to earn a bachelor’s degree

or higher                                         68.2             48.2

* During first semester of their senior year.

—————————————————————————-

 Note.  Percentage of public school seniors reporting selected indicators of school success by participation and nonparticipation in extracurricular activities, 1992

According to the above table, those who participate in extracurricular activities, have fewer absences, higher grades, and greater aspirations. This table draws a clear correlation between success in school and participation in activities outside of school.

There is a large range of extracurricular activities that may appeal to many different students.  Whether one is interested in athletics, performing arts, or clubs, students show that all are beneficial to a student’s education.  Some argue that those of a lower socioeconomic class do not have the same opportunities for extracurricular activities as those in a higher economic class.  However, according to studies, there is, surprisingly, only a slight difference between the number of students involved in activities in wealthier schools as compared to those in less privileged schools.  The results of such a study conducted by the National Center for Education and Statistics are displayed in the table below.

Table 2

----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                      Low SES students   High SES students
                                     -----------------  ------------------
                                        Less      More      Less      More
                               *All  affluent affluent  affluent  affluent
Selected activity          students  students students  students  students
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
Any activity                   79.9      74.7     73.0      86.8      87.6
Sports                         42.4      34.3     33.2      48.6      53.1
Performing arts                27.5      25.0     20.7      32.0      29.2
Academic clubs                 26.2      20.2     20.5      36.2      32.3
Vocational/professional clubs  20.8      29.2     25.6      16.0      11.8
Honor societies                18.1      10.3     10.0      30.8      29.9
Publications                   17.0      17.6      9.5      22.4      20.0
Student government             15.5      12.6      9.9      17.5      20.9
Service clubs                  15.2      10.0      9.4      25.0      21.1
Hobby clubs                     8.5       8.2      6.9       9.4       9.6
 
Note. Percentage of public school seniors participating in selected extracurricular activities by SES of student and affluence of school, 1992
The outcome of this study shows that there is no more than a five percent difference between low social economic students (SES) and high social economic students.  However, this study also revealed in some instances, there are a greater percentage of students participating in after school activities at less affluent schools.  Therefore, the accusations that have been made stating less fortunate schools do not give as many opportunities to students, are often false.  Public schools make an effort to ensure that all students have a fair opportunity to pursue their interests in extracurricular activities.

Although athletics are not the only extracurricular activity, they may benefit students throughout their lifetimes.  Partaking in school athletics at a young age, betters a student’s health.  Erica Roth, a professional journalist, insists that:  “Children who play sports or participate in daily physical activity have a lower risk of becoming obese and developing related medical problems” (Roth).  Being active at a young age is beneficial to a student’s health.  This is also a good time in a student’s life to develop healthy habits.

Participation in extracurricular activities is often a good indicator of a successful student.  Since these types of activities can widely vary, there is some type of activity that will appeal to everyone.  A well rounded student is best prepared for academic success as well as future success in life.  Schools prepare the younger generations for the future.  When there is an opportunity to help students succeed in school, educators strive to take advantage of that opportunity.  Extracurricular activities are one of the many improvements in the public school system today.  Studies show that activities outside of school benefit students in and outside the classroom.  It is important that kids have the ability to relieve their stress of school and life by spending time doing something they enjoy.  Public schools have made this possible.

 References

O’Brien, E. (1995, June). National center for education statistics.

Roth, E. (26 M). Livestrong. http://www.livestrong.com/article/375849-how-extracurricular-

sports-have-a-positive-influence-on-children/

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The Public Crisis

May 9, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Reforms in Public Schools

 

 

Many people in today’s society fret over the dismal economy or inflexible government, but they are incoherent of the main issue this nation faces: public education. Education is the key root to success, but many overlook this hidden part of our economy, only seeing the leaves on the end of its branches die and fall. If the roots are not placed in fertile soil and given water, the tree will wither and expire. The United States is stuck at an unrelenting crossroad between budget and power; here, the nation must decide which direction will provide a permanent solution for the countries public crisis. By improving and reforming public education, America’s excelling, innovative culture will be revitalized.

Arizona had a chance to help revive its economy: Proposition 204; however, the bill did not pass. Proposition 204 was created to help improve Arizona’s funding for public education. Azcentral stated: “the Legislature has cut nearly 19 percent of K-12 funding in the past five years” (Fehr-Snyder, 2012). This decrease in funding has caused strain on the already minimal budget. Paper, textbooks, and innovations—all vital aspects to a high quality learning experience—would have been purchased with the one-cent tax increase. The East Valley Tribune explained: “Prop 204 is Arizona voters’ chance to take control and decide for themselves that education funding is a top priority — rather than leaving that decision to partisan politics at the state level” (The East Valley Tribune, 2012). Unfortunately, the voters did not take control, for 63% of Arizona’s voters chose “no” during the 2012 voting period, and the proposition was not passed. The rejection of this proposal was due to the countless dollars spent on anti-Prop 204 advertising. People marketed that the money earned from the one-cent sales taxes would not only go towards education but also go towards other funds. These accusations were irrational and incorrect, but as stated in the Arizona Daily Star: “Even if the tax did not have other beneficiaries, Ducey said voters were right to reject more funding for education. He said he’s not convinced more cash is necessary. ‘I want to more effectively spend the dollars we have now,’ he said, before talking about additional resources” (Howard Fischer Capitol Media Services, 2012). Ducey, the state treasurer who led the opposition, is a portrayal of today’s society. When cash is tight, few are willing to give money to help. This unwillingness is caused by the belief that money does not affect test scores. To a certain extent, this point is accurate; however, Proposition 204 would not have just innovated and upgraded schools, but would help schools—with limited funding—stay afloat.  In other words, proposition 204 would have kept many teachers employed and thousands of kids in an education. As depicted by Edtec:

Table 1

Failing Charter Schools

josh ten graph

Note. Adapted from National Charter School Research Project, September 2008

People, like Ducey, would rather save one-cent and hide in their ignorant world than admit that they could spare the tax to improve the current state of the United States’ education system.

Though Arizona is only a single state, the small change could have made a vast difference on millions of lives. In 2009, the number of students attending public schools, in the United States, was around fifty million. (Center of Public Education, 2013). The nation has displayed its lack of concern for education, while other countries have made tremendous strides in the topic. PBS once stated: “many experts say the U.S. should rethink its approach and model itself after countries that offer rigorous, challenging coursework in their vocational schools” (PBS: News Desk, 2012).  The United States education system has fallen behind several countries, currently being ranked 17th in the world. Many Americans are surprised by this astonishing thought; however, they are unwilling to make a change. Jonathan Zimmerman, writer from the Los Angeles Times, vividly describes the bottom line of American Education: “Some kids still get a rich education and others get a poor one, depending on the wealth of the school district where they reside. Ditto for charter schools, which allow children to enroll in privately operated but publicly funded schools of their choice — so long as these schools are also located in the same district” (Zimmerman, 2012). Not only is an increased budget a necessity, but reforming the way the budget is used can cause an improvement in education. Constantly at Desert Vista High School—an institution in Tempe Union High School District—there is a shortage of paper, but there is always new technology being added to the classrooms. This irony is caused by the budget’s separation into different sections.

America needs to reform its ideals on education. Society must conclude that education is the way to improve the United States economy. By refining and expanding current schools’ budgets, the United States will become a highly recognized educational country once again.  New students enter kindergarten as petite seeds and grow into the trees of the economy. But as the tree keeps losing its leaves, it is the nation’s job to nourish and give the plant water. Though money does not grow on trees, our economy thrives off education’s roots. As a community, this country can solve this horrific public crisis.

 

 

References

Center of Public Education. (2013). How many students attend our school(s)? Retrieved from Data F1rst: http://www.data-first.org/data/how-many-students-attend-our-schools/

Edtec. (2008, September ). Character Quality. Retrieved from Edtec: http://www.edtec.biz/resource/quality.php#1

Fehr-Snyder, K. (2012, November 5). azcentral. School boards worried over funding if Prop. 204 fails.

Howard Fischer Capitol Media Services. (2012, November 7). Prop. 204: Bid to retain 1-cent tax fails after flood of last-minute ads. Arizona Daily Star.

PBS: News Desk. (2012, August 13). Education Olympics: How Does the U.S. Rank? Retrieved from PBS NEWS HOUR: http://www.pbs.org/newshour/rundown/2012/08/education-olympics-how-does-the-us-rank-1.html

The East Vally Tribune. (2012, October 28). Our View: Prop 204 gives voters some control of school funding. Retrieved from eastvalleytribune: http://www.eastvalleytribune.com/opinion/our_view/article_66e98edc-1fcd-11e2-bfd5-0019bb2963f4.html

Zimmerman, J. (2012, September 07). Romney’s radical vision for education. Retrieved from Los Angeles Times: http://articles.latimes.com/2012/sep/07/opinion/la-oe-zimmerman-vouchers-gop-20120907

 

 

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Public vs Private

May 9, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Public Vs. Private, School Structure

 

Public or private, the choice has baffled parents since education became mandatory in the 17th century. Private schools have created a sense of false advertisement that they will automatically get students accepted into prestigious colleges and have belittled the education of public schooling. The positives of public institutions are tremendous, and the truth behind private educations laws must be revealed.

The most common misconception about education quality is that by paying for one’s education, he is intern having better teachers; however campus explorer states: “Public school teachers are required to become certified, meaning they hold at least a bachelor’s degree and have passed the testing and training required. Teachers at private schools can be hired under less strenuous standards. It’s not always necessary to have a teaching credential to teach at a private school” (Campus Explorer, 2013). A student in a private school might not even have a teacher who knows anything about the subject he is learning. Credentials aside, the quality of teacher cannot be measured quantitatively, but on how much a student learns from that instructor.

The Center on Public Education preformed a test to determine if private or public schools were better. These are its findings, students who attend private schools: do not perform better on achievement testing in math, reading, science or history; are not more likely to attend college; will not have more job satisfaction later in life and will not be more likely to attend civic activities

(Center on Education Policy, 2007).  These results could be extremely alarming to parents spending upwards of ten thousand dollars on their son or daughters high school education. The question: why pay for a private school soon arises. As stated by Canyonville Christian Academy: “Students attending boarding schools, in particular, will learn how to clean their rooms, take care of their own laundry, and be forced to deal with personal conflicts in a way that can never be learned in the protective shell of home”(Canyonville Christian Academy, 2009). This point seems very logical. If students are forced to mature at a younger age, they will be more prepared for college’s rapid style of learning and be more likely to succeed later on. Most private schools are not boarding schools, and in many cases, the students at these institutions are “babied” instead of forced to mature. Naomi Wolf, writer for The Guardian, explains: “Many educators in these schools complain that parents’ – and, increasingly, students’ – attitude to educators is that they are consuming a costly luxury product, and that the teachers work for them; rather than serving as authority figures to the kids” (Wolf, 2012). By allowing adolescence to think this way, parents are teaching kids immaturity instead of its counterpart.

Public schools have the same opportunities as private, and often have countless courses private schools are unable to provide. Brophy College Prep—in Phoenix, Arizona—only has 1,270 students (Parenting Informed, 2013). While a public school—specifically Desert Vista High School—has 2,966 students. (Great Schools, 2013). Because the school is half the size, many of the course options offered at Desert Vista are not presented at these private schools. Many of these courses not offered are in the fine arts department. Classes like photography, multimedia applications, even ceramics might not be offered at private schools because they are too expensive and there are not enough students willing to attend the class.

The numerous fallacies of private schools, that have been falsely communicated, outweigh the few positives these institutions are able to give to their students. In essence, where a student goes or how much his parents pay for him to attend a school will not affect how bright he is. Public schools have as high, or even better, quality teachers, technology, and course selections than private schools.

 

 

 

References

Campus Explorer, (2013). Campusexplorer. Retrieved from College Admissions

 

http://www.campusexplorer.com/college-advice-tips/69B3FC95/College-Admissions-Do-Private-Schools-Have-An-Advantage/

http://www.edline.com/uploads/pdf/PrivateSchoolsReport.pdf

http://www.canyonville.net/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-private-school/

http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/cifamerica/2012/mar/22/pampered-private-school-elite-us-decline

http://privateschools.parentinginformed.com/q/117580/5696/How-many-students-does-Brophy-College-Preparatory-enroll

http://www.greatschools.org/arizona/phoenix/604-Desert-Vista-High-School/).

 

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Dance It Out

May 6, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Athletics, Fine Arts, Health, Public Education Programs

 

Dance is a way to express oneself. Dance is exercise. Dance is passion. Dance cannot only be a hobby, but also an outlet for creativity and fitness. Childhood obesity is a leading social issue facing the United States today. Many educators say that dance programs need to be properly implemented in public schools all over the country. Dance education benefits students by keeping them active, and giving them advantages in the classroom.

According to the Center for Disease Control child obesity rates of children 12-19 have increased over the past 45 years have increased almost 15% at a national scale.  With the increasing numbers of obese children in America, people are starting to take a stand. Inspirational figures, such as Michelle Obama are speaking up about the topic; encouraging physical education. Dance education supporters are taking this opportunity to make greater connections in order to share their visions. One might say: Why dance? Why not just a normal P.E. class? At the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, it is said that dance provides greater benefits than a regular physical education course. To the educators at this organization, dance “increases flexibility, agility, coordination, and spatial awareness. At the same time, it develops children’s expressive, musical, motor, and auditory skills” (“The Kennedy Center,” 2010). These are all important abilities for individuals to have. Keeping healthy should not be the only outcome of physical education. Dance keeps this the main priority, but also includes the additional teachings.

graph08

(CDC, 2011)

Educators believe dance plays another role as well. Research from the University of Illinois, says that 20 minutes of physical activity everyday increases storage capacity in the brain for other school activities, especially reading. Dance also gives ways to relate with math and different sciences (“The Kennedy Center,” 2010). By stimulating the brain, dance makes it easier to take in new information. It also provides a break during the school day. An hour of dance during the day gives students time to get away. It allows them to regain their thoughts and just be free.

Dance education translates from benefits in fitness to benefits in the classroom. With dance programs placed in public schools, children will be allowed to keep healthy. They will be able to engage their minds and bodies once a day and keep a positive outlook. Dance may not seem to be beneficial, but with the integration with public schools, dance to be brought to children all over the country; providing the benefits not all thought were there.

 

References

The kennedy center arts edge. (2010). Retrieved from http://artsedge.kennedy-q     center.org/families/at-school/parent-power/keeping-kids-dancing.aspx

CDC. (2011, January 21). Morbidity and mortality weekly report. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6002a2.htm

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Defusing the Bomb

May 6, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Bullying

Bombs are very complex creations that can be very erratic. They can be very unpredictable and, with one wrong snip of wires, explode unexpectedly, injuring many people in the process. Bullying is the bomb of the school environment. Children today bully to hurt their peers, seemingly for a quick laugh, and affect many students around them. Are all the negative connotations that come with bullying affecting how children learn in school? Many say yes: “It is estimated that 160,000 children miss school every day due to fear of attack or intimidation by other students” (Left, 2009). Schools around the country cannot let bullying be the cause of why their students are not learning to the best of their abilities. Bullying creates fear in students and is a barrier blocking them from having a positive experience in school. As a nation, there has to be a common goal in mind: defuse the bomb.

Bullying is a rare concept that has absolutely no positive qualities. Everything about bullying is wrong, and horribly misconstrued by adults as something that cannot affect students in much later years of their lives. In fact, according to John Left of Make Beats Not Beat Downs: “86% of students said other kids ‘picking on them, making fun or them or bullying them’ causes teenagers to turn to lethal violence in the schools” (Left, 2009). Although some refuse to believe it, bullying takes a toll on a student’s mental well being, and one incident of bullying can haunt him for the rest of his life: “Bullying can have long-term mental effects on children. Typically, bullied students are already physically and emotionally weaker, and the bullying only compounds these already present emotions. Intense bullying can be linked to anxiety and depression before physical violence is ever involved” (Team Teachers, 2012). Clearly bullying only harms students, yet there seems to be no significant reaction to this equally significant issue. Unfortunately, people often become aware in the worst way possible: after a student’s moral has been beaten down so violently that he decides to take his own life. Society needs to stop bullying at its source, inside of schools, in order to create a safe environment where children feel free to learn and enjoy absorbing new information.

In addition to feeling like prey to the bullies while at school, these students also struggle to maintain good grades. A group of researchers, who are associated with US News, compared GPAs of 9,590 students from different schools and found that out of those who were bullied, the students had a 0.049 drop in their grades (US News, 2011). Bullying is terrible on its own, but when this issue affects the likelihood of a student to get accepted into college, eventually, many people are much more aware of the effect it has. Students who are witnesses to the bullying experience these situations first hand and still do not attempt to stop the bully. After watching idly by, it seems amazing that not even the friends of the victim seem interested to help. In doing this, they are hurting their peers more than they are helping them: “Children are adept at hiding bullying— related behaviors and the unequal ‘shadow’ power dynamics that exist among them. Because of this secrecy, adults underestimate the seriousness and extent of bullying at their schools” (Committee for Children, 2012). By not stepping up to help their peers, students are making themselves more susceptible to being bullied by not making the problem visible to the adults who have the authority to stop it. Many organizations, Rachel’s Challenge being one, strive to promote peaceful behavior and student unity in schools throughout the nation. Rachel’s Challenge is a special program that is centered around Rachel Scott, a victim of the Columbine High School shooting of 1999. This tragic event took Rachel away from a world she envisioned that she could touch with her compassion and kind heart: “I have this theory that if one person can go out of their way to show compassion, then it will start a chain reaction of the same. People will never know how far a little kindness can go” (Scott, 1999). Her vision of kindness lives on: today this program is taking her vision and pushing it on millions of students around the nation, trying to get them to be considerate of each other’s feelings. If public schools incorporate more anti-bullying programs into their curriculum, great amounts of bullying would be replaced with gentle communication.

Bullying is the worst form of student interaction in the history of schooling. The need for students to victimize their peers is atrocious and should not be tolerated. Physical violence is easy to spot and terminate, but emotional bullying is the most hurtful and effective form of bullying, and is incredibly difficult to see. Emotional abuse is labeled by Psych Central as: “The most painful and destructive form of violence” (Focus on the Family, 2013). Although physical violence is easier to stop, the only way for teachers to end emotional bullying is to cut it at its roots: the parents. Parents are the only people who can re-educate their children on how to interact in a positive way, without leaving emotional scars. If teachers can convince the parents of bullies to bring a close to their children’s bad behavior, bullying would be significantly reduced. Similarly, if parents change their behavior to set a good example for their kids, there is an enormous chance that the children will follow their parents’ behavior. “Bullies usually come from homes where the parents fight a lot, so violence has been modeled for them” (Psych Central, 2010). If we can get parents involved and also train teachers to keep an eye out for specific behavior, the fight to stop bullying will be aided incredibly, and in turn, create a safer environment in schools around the country. After all, one needs to put effort and time into being taught how to defuse a bomb to do it correctly.

 

References

Committee for children. (2013, August 23). Retrieved from http://www.cfchildren.org/advocacy/bullying-prevention/why-kids-dont-report-bullying.aspx

Focus on the family. (2010). Retrieved from psychcentral.com/lib/2009/how-do-we-stop-bullying-in-schools/

Focus on the family. (2013). Retrieved from www.focusonthefamily.com/lifechallenges/abuse_and_addiction/understanding_emotional_abuse.aspx

Left, J. (2009). Make beats not downs. Retrieved from http://www.makebeatsnotbeatdowns.org/facts_new.html

Left, J. (2009). MBNBD. Retrieved from http://www.makebeatsnotbeatdowns.org/facts_new.html

Scott, R. (1999). Rachel’s challenge. Retrieved from http://www.rachelschallenge.org/big-picture/about-rachels-challenge/

 Team teachers. (2012). Retrieved http://teamteachers.tumblr.com/post/5526295745/how-does-bullying-affect-a-childs-development-how

 Us news. (2013, August 23). Retrieved from http://health.usnews.com/health-news/family-health/articles/2011/08/23/grades-may-suffer-when-teens-get-bullied

 

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A Closer Look

May 6, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Public Vs. Private, School Structure

For most families, before a child enters his or her first year of schooling, the parents must ask themselves, public or private school? In some cases, finding an answer is easier than others, but the choice always must be made with caution. Private schools are thought to be the superior of the two options, due to the myth that children will achieve higher test scores if they go to private schools and will get a much better overall education. This belief is very far from the truth, as public schools are not only on the same level as private schools, but they are better, too.

A delusion that many parents have is that private schools will generate much higher test results than public schools. The University of Illinois did a study on 10,000 students in public and private schools and put their test scores up against each other. Their findings were shocking to many parents. The data was based on two math scores, one recorded in kindergarten and another in the fifth grade, to show the progress made by the students. Results from the first test show both types of schools achieving roughly the same the scores. In the fifth graders’ scores, however, public schools achieved much higher marks, roughly equal to a whole extra year of math (Chamberlain, 2008). The myth has been proven wrong, and a new fact has arisen: public schools, by statistics, are a better option than private schools in terms of test scores.

Many parents believe that paying an extraordinary amount of money will automatically make their children more efficient learners than those who go to school for free. What many parents overlook are the intricacies of the private school system. One of the biggest concerns that parents should avoid overlooking are the requirements that it takes for a teacher to be able to work at a private school. In all public schools, teachers are required to have a teaching degree and certification from the state education department in order to work. The state of North Carolina finely states this in the doctrine that displays the laws required for teachers to obtain in their state:

“All professional employees of public schools must hold a professional educator’s license for the subject or grade level they teach or for the professional education assignment that they hold…The standard basis for professional educator’s licensure is the completion of a state approved education program at a regionally accredited college or university.”  (North Carolina, 2013)

The same cannot be said for private schools. Private schools often do not require teachers to have a degree or a license. When a parent sends his or her child to a private school, they are unknowingly hoping that the teacher has knowledge of the course. Thus, public school teachers are more reliable and knowledgeable about the subject in which they teach. Even if private school teachers are on par with public school teachers, there is no reason to pay for the equal education that is free.

The biggest difference between a public and private school can be boiled down to one simple point, cost. Public schools offer a free place for any child to learn. Private schools present a place to learn only to those who can afford to pay for the education. Some private schools, such as the Lawrenceville School in New Jersey, can cost over $45,000 to be able to go to the school (Zeveloff, 2011). The cost is more than some of the nation’s top universities. The cost is more than some of the nation’s top universities. To pay an outrageous amount of money in order to send a child to school, when the child could go to the same school for free and perform just as well with just as qualified or more qualified teachers is an outlandish idea.

A major separation between public and private schools is found right in their names. Private schools only allow those who can afford to pay the price tag that they put on their education. Public schools are just for that, the public. Robert Niles, a writer for the Huffington Post, explains just this in his reason why he sends his children to public schools instead of having them obtain a private education:

“They don’t get to cherry-pick only the brightest or wealthiest students. And that’s a large

part of their appeal to me. Attend a public school, and you’re getting to know people from            every corner of your community, not just people of the same religion or social class.”

(Niles 2011)

Public school put children in real world settings, with diversity flooding the halls. Private schools are cookie cutter, the same type of children in every classes, only allowing certain social classes  and often times certain ethnicities to attend the schools. Children who grow up appreciating diversity will become tolerant adults to all races and kinds of people.

Public schools have proven that money is no variable to how well educated children will become. Without thousands of dollars, or even one cent, public schools have continually proven themselves as top places to teach the youth of America. Not only are test scores showing the advantages of public schools, but the advantages of qualified teachers and diversity are also helping the youth for the future. Public schools are unfairly judged based on false stereotypes. If people were to take a closer look, they may find their opinion changed.

 

 

References

Chamberlain, C. (May 23, 2008). Public schools as good as private schools in raising math

scores, study says. News Bureau Illinois. Retrieved from news.illinois.edu

Niles, R. (October 9, 2011). Why I Send My Children to Public Schools. The Huffington Post.

Retrieved from huffingtonpost.com

North Carolina Public Schools, FAQ. (2013). North Carolina Public Schools. Retrived from:

ncpublicschools.org

Zeveloff, J. (April 10, 2011). The 28 Most Expensive Private Schools in America. Business

Insider. Retrieved from businessinsider.com

 

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With Any Sort of Certainty

May 4, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Reforms in Public Schools

 

Dedicated teachers, reasonably high standards, and meaningful assignments are all necessary in order to create engaged students with a desire to learn. However, which teaching methods are the most effective may vary by subject. While copious reading of the text book and memorization of key points may be required for a well-rounded education in the realm of history and social studies, other fields of study can best be taught by integrating more hands-on participation by students. American education officials have taken note of the different types of teaching best suited for specific subjects and have made appropriate changes to optimize learning potential. The development of interesting curriculum and the implementation of engaging methods of teaching are much needed changes that are helping to improve science education in American public schools.

Ten years ago, science teachers released a document stressing the importance of equipping students with the skills necessary in order to learn about the world through scientific observation, as well as the systems needed to do so. The National Science Teachers Association (NSTA), a group whose goal it is to improve the state of scientific education in the United States, recognized that the teaching methods for science could use improvement. Rather than angrily criticize, they compiled goals and means of achieving them. A key term used in the report is “scientific literacy,” which is the NSTA’s goal for America’s students: “Scientific Literacy means that a person can ask, find, or determine answers to questions derived from curiosity about everyday experiences. It means that a person has the ability to describe, explain, and predict natural phenomena” (“Beyond 2000 – teachers of,” 2003). The idea of people being curious about the world can be seen as the first step in, as the oft-used phrase goes, lifelong learning. Wanting to learn about the world is an important foundational ability needed to continue one’s education beyond high school and college. The NSTA also wishes to teach students how to go about discovering and internalizing new knowledge pertaining to what they are curious about. Using science to teach students to think critically is a practical way to encourage the prevalent idea in American education of lifelong learning.

Science curriculum has been developed and refined, but there is always room for improvement. This year, a group of qualified professionals from numerous relevant fields released specific standards for what students are taught in public schools, called the Next Generation Science Standards. These standards are similar to the Common Core standards already used by many states, but for a different subject (Gillis, 2013). The teachers, scientists, and government officials who contributed to these standards are some of the most qualified people to be making decisions about science in public schools. When the three occupational fields combine to consult on an issue, the result is a highly reputable entity, the recommendations of which can be taken seriously. The changes to course structure and shifts in materials covered were undoubtedly critically considered and heavily scrutinized before being published; they can therefore be assumed with some certainty to be a positive renovation to public education.

Despite the reliability of their source, the recommended science standards are being met with opposition. The group Citizens for Objective Public Education released a document containing opinions staunchly against ideas presented in the Next Generation Science Standards. The group’s letter claims that the proposed changes to science education are one-sided and do not take into consideration important possibilities regarding scientific theories. They claim that the methods of scientific observation and learning detailed in the standards are biased and do not allow students to think for themselves:

The Framework and Standards are designed to cause all children to accept the core ideas presented. To achieve this result they utilize a method of progressively increasing knowledge about a “core idea” over the 13-year educational experience so that by the end of the 12th grade the child will be proficient in understanding and accepting the core idea. (Lassey, 2012)

Furthermore, they mention numerous “flaws” with the theory of evolution, which the Next Generation Science Standards call to be taught on a more standardized level. (“The next generation,” 2013) The general idea of the letter is that scientific principles are a controversial method of learning that should not be taught in public schools.

Unfortunately for denouncers of science, physical observation is all that one can rely on while remaining unbiased in an educational setting; the degree to which one believes in the reliability of observation is an individual choice that parents can discuss with their children. There appear to be two alternative strategies to teaching the scientific method: teaching students about the divine and its role in the physical world or abandoning science in the classroom altogether. The first would obviously be a violation of the separation of church and state. Citizens for Objective Public Education claim in the letter that not talking about God when teaching science is an equivalent infraction of the Constitution: “It appears that the Framework and Standards promote Religious (“Secular”) Humanism” (Lassey, 2012). However, since many phenomena can be satisfactorily explained without bringing religion into the discussion, there is no reason why they should not be explained. Such topics should be discussed in objective ways by schools, while others (such as the afterlife or the universe before the big bang) should be pondered at home or at church. The second means of not complying with the suggested standards – not teaching science – is a ridiculous idea. The results of not educating future generations would have disastrous consequences for the United States’ ability to compete globally in areas such as business, defense, and technological advancements. A considerable amount of the technology used daily by Americans has come to fruition due to science striking a child as interesting. If public schools were to stop teaching children about these concepts, the trend of progress America has been following since its birth would suffer a regression; their discontinuation would lead to a nation lagging behind the rest of the world.

Science is one of the most important fields of study taught in public schools. It has been fundamental to discoveries that have led to developments in every field imaginable; there is not a single subject in school that has not been affected by science in some way. In order to continue assisting this beneficial relationship, there must be a continual push for improvement. The positive effects of these efforts will be felt by teachers and students alike. The efforts of groups such as the NSTA should be commended for ensuring American education’s enduring path of betterment remains unobstructed. Constructive, practical plans such as the Next Generation Science Standards prove that Americans care about public education and understand its implications for society as a whole. If anything can explain the observable world with any sort of certainty, it is people with scientific knowledge. It is the duty of the education system to instill these important thinking and learning skills into the young people who are of the United States.

 

References

Beyond 2000—teachers of science speak out. (2003, February). Retrieved from http://www.nsta.org/about/positions/beyond2000.aspx

Gillis, J. (2013, April 9). New guidelines call for broad changes in science education. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/10/science/panel-calls-for-broad-changes-in-science-education.html?pagewanted=all&_r=1&

Lassey, A. (2012, June 1). Cope letter to achieve inc. Retrieved from http://www.copeinc.org/docs/COPE-Letter-Achieve-Inc-June-1-2012.pdf

The next generation science standards. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.nextgenscience.org/next-generation-science-standards

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Tools for Educational Success

May 3, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Public Education Programs, Technology

More than ever before, technology is being used to facilitate education. Nationwide the demand for computers ad tablets is increasing. The rise in use of computers in schools shows how districts are able to incorporate the ever advancing world of  technology into lesson plans. Intertwining computers and school assignments is just one of the methods for teaching real-world skills. With the world constantly shifting towards a more digital age, the rise in use of computers is a valuable tool for both students and teachers.

The idea behind technology in schools is to introduce a whole new way of teaching. By using technology, teachers can draw from a myriad of online resources to teach new and interesting lessons to their students. In January of 2013, the Viktor Rydberg school in Stockholm began a new class in which the video game Minecraft is played by students. Through this program, students learn a multitude of life skills in an enthralling and captivating manner. As the school teacher, Monica Ekman explains: “They learn about city planning, environmental issues, getting things done, and even how to plan for the future” (Halloway, 2013). This school is taking a resource based video game and turning it into a creative process for its students. Students are taught important lessons through simple acts of building and resource managing. The concept of technology in schools is a simplistic notion; give students the ability to create. Ingenuity is a valuable skill kids need in the future.

The point of concern revolves around the idea of students abusing the technology presented to them. However, technology is a more captivating teaching medium. The lessons that use computers as opposed to conventional academic lessons are more likely to engage students in assignments. In a study about the effects of technology on classrooms and students, it was found that:  ”The student is actively making choices about how to generate, obtain, manipulate, or display information. Technology use allows many more students to be actively thinking about information, making choices, and executing skills than is typical in teacher-led lessons” (Effects Of Technology On Classrooms And Students).  Instead of allowing children to play on the computers, they take part in captivating lessons that stray from typical lectures. Activities range from attentiveness to problem solving. The use of applications and computer programs in schools can be extremely beneficial to both students and teachers.

The practical uses and applications of technology to education are widespread and all-encompassing. From online tests, assignments, creative projects, multimedia design, surveys to collaborative activities, the uses for computers and other technologies open brand new avenues of teaching to schools across the world. In a study done by the National Education Association, Roekel explains the satisfaction accompanied with technology in schools: “While teachers are generally positive about technology, newer teachers are even more enthusiastic. More of them are satisfied with their general knowledge of technology and see it as having an impact on their job effectiveness” (Dennis Van Roekel). While technology is not only more engaging to students in class, but also it enables teachers to create more successful and captivating lesson plans. The major benefits of technology in schools are attributed to both teachers and students. Overall, Increasing student performance and engagement while also giving teachers a higher level of job satisfaction.

Overall, the usage of technology has little to no negative effects on the student population. At its core, the idea is to increase student involvement in academics. Computer activities instill more motivation in students to complete activities and assignments, making it an increasingly effective education mechanism. With more schools adding computers into lesson plans and offering online classes, schooling institutions continue to make education more accessible to students. The broad and successful implementation of technology in educational institutions further cements the fact that technology truly is a tool for a meaningful and effective education.

 

References

Dennis Van Roekel, R. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.nea.org/assets/docs/PB19_Technology08.pdf

Effects Of Technology On Classrooms And Students. Retrieved from http://www2.ed.gov/pubs/EdReformStudies/EdTech/effectsstudents.html

Halloway, J. (2013, 01 14). School imposes compulsory minecraft lessons. Retrieved from http://www.gizmag.com/compulsory-minecraft-lessons/25781/

 

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School Safety

May 3, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Laws Affecting Public Education

 

After the tragic school shooting in Newtown, Connecticut last December, school safety has been an important issue at both the national level and within schools themselves. To prevent such a horrific event from ever happening again, it is evident that the security of schools must be reevaluated and improved. Groups that are in favor of gun control laws and those who are opposed to them continue to debate the issue, while some state and local communities have taken matters into their own hands. Several schools have opted to erect fences around school grounds; some have required their staff and students to wear identification badges, and a number have even armed designated officials and security guards to protect the students. No matter the method, it is imperative that measures be taken to ensure the safety and wellbeing of all who attend public institutions of education.

Before the methods of enforcing school safety can be discussed, it is important to understand exactly what a safe school entails. A safe school can be defined as “a place where the business of education can be conducted in a welcoming environment free of intimidation, violence, and fear. Such a setting provides an educational climate that fosters a spirit of acceptance and care for every child” (Bucher, 2005). In their journal article, “Creating Safe Schools,” Katherine T. Bucher and M. Lee Manning explain that school safety must extend beyond physical protection: students should feel emotionally and psychologically safe as well, and should not dread coming to school because of bullies, or a fear of ridicule of any kind. They outline several indicators that are crucial for schools to possess in order to be considered safe (Table 1).

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Table 1. Indicators of a safe school (Bucher, 2005).

Perhaps the most important of these points are the care, attention, and support of teachers towards students. Bucher and Manning state that “in order to be emotionally and intellectually safe, schools must go beyond the obvious checks for physical safety to create a sense of community, increased student-teacher cooperation, and a common conflict management language” (Bucher, 2005). Instead of focusing too heavily on the curriculum, teachers should take time to encourage their students and discover if they have any personal problems or concerns. This will not only make students feel better and more confident about themselves, but they will also feel emotionally safe every day as they walk through the doors.

As the gun control dilemma continues, The National Rifle Association has offered their own solution to the question of school security, which they believe will be effective, albeit controversial: change the law to allow teachers and school administrators to carry concealed firearms in schools (Sanchez, 2013). The NRA has been the subject of much criticism, and even condemnation by Connecticut Senator Chris Brown, for their opposition of gun control laws after the Newtown shooting. Despite this controversy, the plan may be beneficial in ensuring that teachers and students are safe in their classrooms. National Public Radio interviewed Kevin Mays, an English teacher from Missouri, who has a concealed weapons permit and would like to be able to carry it in school: “I’m not looking forward to something like this…I’m not some kind of gun-wielding nut. I would be willing to do it for the sake of the protection of my students” (Sanchez, 2013). Despite the potential benefits of the NRA’s plan, the federal government has refused to fund the training programs that would be necessary for teachers to take in order to become certified to carry a weapon (Inskeep, 2013). Until funding is realized, the initiative to arm teachers may not come to fruition.

Another answer to the school safety dilemma has been provided by Sheriff Joe Arpaio of Maricopa County, Arizona. Arpaio has been in the news on numerous occasions for his controversial methods, which are often deemed harsh and unforgiving. “Sheriff Joe” has taken matters into his own hands by recruiting his volunteer posse of nearly 3000 civilians, 500 of whom are licensed to carry a weapon, to patrol the premises of Maricopa County schools so as to prevent violent incidents from occurring, especially those in which an intruder enters a school (Moran, 2013). By having members of the community keeping a watchful eye out for trouble, it is very likely that any potentially dangerous offense will be stopped before anyone could get hurt. Critics of Sheriff Arpaio’s tactics, especially supporters of gun control, believe that having armed civilians close to schools will actually be detrimental to students’ safety. Donna Wetzel, a mother whose child attends Paradise Honors High School, states “they are not police officers, they are not military folks and, maybe, they may not like the look of a kid walking down the street. And I worry about instances like what happened in Florida with Treyvon Martin” (Moran, 2013). Despite public disapproval, Arpaio has full confidence in his posse’s ability and stands by them.

School safety is one of the most important issues facing this country today. When considering the many options for solving this problem, some questions should be taken into account. To what extent are we, as a society, willing to relinquish our personal freedom in order to ensure student safety? Is a safe school really one in which all exits are sealed off and surrounded by a tall fence, while armed guards patrol the halls and intimidate the students? This would certainly prevent physical harm, but the students would not feel emotionally safe in such a prison-like environment. It is crucial for governments and schools to develop a method of security that reaches a balance between freedom and protection.

 

References:

Bucher, K.T. & Manning, M.L. (2005, Sep. – Oct.). Creating safe schools. The Clearing House, 79(1), 55-60. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/

Moran, T. & Capote, N. (Reporters). (2013, April 5). Sheriff Arpaio’s answer to school safety: Armed civilian posse. ABC Nightline [Television broadcast]. ABC News.

Sanchez, C. (Reporter). (2013, April 3). NRA task force issues plan for school safety. NPR News [Radio broadcast]. National Public Radio.

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Student Role Performance

May 2, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Public Education Programs

 

What is the key to unlocking a student’s productivity in education? The first step is to choose whether to enroll the student in a private or public school. Children are significantly affected by the world and the environment around them. Comparing both private and public schools, there are distinct differences in the atmospheres they create. Jennifer Barry with a Bachelor’s degree in arts wrote a thesis on Student Role Performance. Student Role Performance (SRP), a term coined by Barry, is the measure of how well an individual performs in an educational institution: “SRP was analyzed with respect to factors including: age, religion, sex, ethnicity, and extra-curricular activities” (Barry, 2005). However, the key independent variable identified in her findings is extra-curricular activities. Public schools offer a plethora of school activities, compared to private schools. The extent of including extra-curricular activities in students’ lives can significantly change the students’ pursuit to achieve academic goals.

It can be argued that, instead of spending time on extra-curricular activities, students should be taught more about the core subjects presented in school, from the arithmetic’s of math to the analysis of literature. However, this is not the only way to strengthen the students’ learning experience. There are other activities which can create stronger leadership and social skills. These activities may include: band, Latin club, soccer, student government, and more. Each of these helps contribute to the student’s comprehensive development, which are not found in every day core classes. Holland and Andre, both researchers and teachers, have suggested that extracurricular activity participation is an important source of positive influences: “which are not part of the regular school, curricular program; and they are structured in some way not just socializing, but working towards some prosocial mission or goal” (Holland & Andre, 1987). Both assert that students who participate in these activities learn important skills, some of which may help them in the future. For example: students might learn important teamwork and leadership skills. These skills are not as common to learn in class; however, by participating in competitions and extra activities, students are able to find their strength and further develop them in the future.

A major factor in changing students’ lives is through their involvement in extra-curricular activities. Extra-curricular activities are a reflection of the students’ personalities and interests. With extra activities, students are able to become unique individuals, with their own ideas and passions. Grant Will, a father seeking the quality of education for his child, wrote an article “Benefits of Participating in After-School Activities”, explaining that outside activities: “Can serve as a break from school environment and children can unwind and do something different. Occupying their minds with something that is fun and interesting to do is a welcome diversion” (Grant, 2009). As every father would desire, Grant believes that enrolling his child in an after-school activity is beneficial because it allows the child to experience other influences that schools do not provide. Larger public schools are well rounded for children’s education, due to their ideal size.

Another article, written similarly with Grant’s idea, encourages parents to enroll students in after school activities to branch out their skills in many areas. Marrie Clarie helps give after school new ideas for activities. Clarie, with a Bachelor of Arts in Psychology, has more than eight years of experience in the child-care profession. She is inspired by the children’s potential to make a positive and meaningful impact on other’s lives. Her child care experience gave her insight into the benefits of participating in out of school activities. She believes that these activities can: “encourage the building of personal and social skills such as raising hands, manners, taking turns, respect, responsibility, and more” (Marie, 2010). She has seen the direct correlation between club activities and their benefits to the children. Many public schools offer a plethora of clubs due to the large enrollment population; therefore, this allows students to open more doors of opportunities. On the other hand, private schools are relatively small, due to their expensive admission fees and offer only a few activities. However, lowering the number of students enrolled, in turn lowers the number of choices in activities students can select. Public education, in the long run, outweighs institutions like private schools by supporting various after school clubs.

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Figure 1. SRP studies set up in a multiple variable chart. The variables are shown on the left column. While the corresponding data values are shown in their rows. Adapted from “The effect of socio-economic status on academic achievement,” by Barry, Jennifer, 2005, p. 33 Copyright 2005 by Wichita State University. Adapted with permission.

SRP studies by Barry support that hours of extra-curricular activities, spent in a week, can dramatically alter test scores. For example, an average of five hours was spent involved in after school activities based on the data from students’ test. The top 33% of the tested group participate in six hours with a standard deviation of 0.3, while the bottom 33% of the tested group is accounted activities for three hours with a standard deviation of 0.8. The difference in their test score is 10%, the equivalent of a letter grade. In this case, a ratio of one hour spent on extra-curricular activities is equivalent to an addition of 10% on a test. Another, deduction can be made because the effect of both club activities and family activities are similar to one another.

Even though family activities are less effective in increasing test results, they still increase the results to some extent. Family activities in the lower 33% of the children who scored 47% show that those children only spend on an average of 44% of their week with their family. Family activities in the higher 33% of the children who scored 57% show that those children spend an average of 60% of their week with their family. The difference on family time spent between the higher 33% and the lower 33% is 16%, and the difference between their test scores is 10%. The ratio of the percent of time spent in a week with families interacting together is 5:8, which means that every 5% more time spent with family activities increases the score of the child by 8%. Through data analysis, the public can see that an increase in group activities can help improve the students’ test scores.

Extra-curricular activities are a great influence and motivator for students. Helping them branch their skills out of the area of core studies taught in many classes. Due to the size of many public schools, children are able to join a larger variety of clubs. Through firsthand experience, from both parents and teachers, parallelism is drawn for the desire of their children to interact with outside events other than school to help their students’ education. Finally, the multi-variable data table shows the distinct similarity of increasing test scores, due to an increase in after school activities. Most large public schools give a greater range of activities to increase the student’s well-being.

Appendix

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Figure 2. Easier representation of the effects of Extra-Curricular activities. Adapted from “Effects of Extra-Curricular Activities Through Standardize Testing,” by Alex Burton, 2013, Copyright 2013 by Burton. Adapted with permission.

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Figure 3. Easier representation of the effects of Family activities. Adapted from “Effects of Family Activities Through Standardize Testing,” by Alex Burton, 2013, Copyright 2013 by Burton. Adapted with permission.

 

 

References

Barry, Jennider. (2005). The Effects of Social-Economic Status on the Academic Achievements. Retrieved from: http://soar.wichita.edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10057/616/barry_jennifer.pdf? sequence=1

Clarie, Marie. (2010). The Psychological Benefits of After School Clubs | After School Club Ideas. After School Club Ideas. Retrieved from: http://www.afterschoolclubideas.com/the-psychological-benefits-of-after-school-clubs/

Grant, Will. (2009). The Benefits of Participating in After-School Activities. Ezine Article. Retrieved from: http://ezinearticles.com/?The-Benefits-of-Participating-in-After-School-Activities&id=4043139

Holland, Alyce, & Andre, Thomas. (1987). Participation in extracurricular activities in secondary school: What is known, what needs to be known? Review of Educational Research, 4347-466. Retrieved from: http://rer.sagepub.com/content/57/4/437.citation

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Uniformly Different

May 2, 2013 in Archive, Articles, School Structure, Uniforms

 

There is plenty of debate intertwined in America’s education system, debates that deal with budget, books, class sizes, and teachers.  A particular dispute that is very important to the students is the one that decides what they get to wear. Appearance can mean everything to a young student.  It is because of this that the uniform debate is of such importance.  Uniforms are able to bring students together, but is it at the expense of their creativity?  The originality aspect is the biggest problem educators have when siding with the uniforms.  In President Bill Clinton’s 1996 union address, when discussing uniforms in public schools, he stated: “If it means teenagers will stop killing each other over designer jackets, then our public schools should be able to require their students to wear school uniforms”  (Mitchell 1996).  President Clinton required students to wear uniforms so they could focus less on their clothes and more on their education.  The President brought up a valid point then and it is still a valid today.  Uniforms take the worry out of the wardrobe and put the worry into the work.

When starting school in the heat of summer, the first code that is usually broken is the dress code.  Dress codes make sure students are not dressing inappropriately so as to distract the education of others.  These clothing regulations are hard to control, because a piece of clothing may be teetering on the line of acceptable and unacceptable.  Educators believe that having uniforms in school will not only make it easier to spot a student defying the dress code, but also make it easier for students to follow the dress code.  Having a system where everyone wears the same outfit eliminates all the dress code restrictions (Education Bug).   Having everyone wear identical clothes will create less work for everyone in the school system.  Uniforms take away the students’ fear that they will be dress coded and make administrators job easier as well.

Many educators are advocates for uniforms, because they take away most of the initial stereotyping.  As a teenager, it is hard not to stereotype people as they walk by.  Even as adults, it is hard not to label students or kids based upon their appearance.  First impressions are the most important.  Uniforms can help with these impressions.  With everyone wearing the same thing, stereotyping becomes harder.  It is also harder to create cliques or gangs by dressing the same.  Sonal Panse, an advocate for uniforms in public schools state: “School uniforms cramp the style of gang members…instead of ‘my gang’ and ‘your gang’, they also have to think in terms of ‘our school’” (Panse S.).  Public schools that have switched to wearing uniforms have found it to be a great success.  According to a study done in a California school, after switching to uniforms, the school’s crime rate dropped by 91 percent; the suspension rate dropped by 90 percent, and sex offenses was reduced by 96 percent (Harden, S.).  These mind boggling statistics exemplify the benefits of having uniforms.  Wearing the same outfit as everyone else may seem drab, but in the end it eliminates many stereotypes.

This past year, an immense problem has arisen in the American education society: school shootings.  The horrendous act done at Newtown Elementary has affected everyone.  From the students to the faculty, everyone is worried that his/her school might be next.  This may seem to have no correlation with uniforms in schools, but it is quite the contrary.  With all students wearing the same clothes, it makes it easier for people of authorities to pick out the intruders or people that do not belong: “A school uniform makes it easier for the school authorities to recognize students belonging to their school. Authorities can also decipher if someone doesn’t belong to a school, if someone just manages to sneak in” (Panse S.).  Panse reiterates the usefulness of uniforms.  They are not just for looks or conformity but also to keep the students safe.

Uniforms may have numerous benefits, but at what cost? The biggest issue students and parents have with uniforms is the creativity aspect.  Great deals of students express who they are through their clothing, but they cannot express themselves if they are required to wear a uniform.  When psychologist, Jessica Richburg, surveyed students about their opinion on uniforms it was pretty clear what the students wanted.  A freshman at the high school Richburg surveyed stated: “The whole point of being in high school is to find out who you are and where you belong, with uniforms this would be hard to do, I feel like if I were forced to wear a uniform to school every single day, I would eventually lose my identity” (Richburg J.).   Numerous students feel that what they wear is whom they are.  If this outlet were taken away from them, they may feel like they have lost themselves.  Many people see uniforms as a violation of a student’s freedom of speech and expression.  Teenagers have very minute legal ways to show who they are, and most believe they can do this through their clothes (Wilde, M.). In a world where students have very little say in what they do, they are in fact, able to chose what they wear.  In the rebellious teenage years of any student, an outlet is needed.  This outlet of creativity is often found sewn in the seams of their wardrobe.

To be uniform is to fit and be together.  The idea of togetherness and coerciveness is what the students need.  Uniforms make it easier for students and administrators to focus on work and not their wardrobe.  As a society, it is often of concern that a student’s creativity will be lost if everyone wears similar clothing.  People believe that if everyone is wearing the same clothes, they must be the same.  This is simply not true.  It should not be the clothes on the students that set them apart but their underlying personality.  Everyone is unique in his or her own way, and having uniforms should not change that.  Instead, it should exemplify a student’s uniqueness through his or her personalities not the threads he or she wear.  Students can still be different but uniformly different.

 

References

Education Bug. Retrieved from http://www.educationbug.org/a/public-school-uniform-debate.html

Harden, S. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.statisticbrain.com/school-uniform-statistics/

Mitchell, A. (February 25, 1996). Clinton Will Advise Schools on Uniforms. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/1996/02/25/us/clinton-will-advise-schools-on-uniforms.html

Panse, S. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.buzzle.com/articles/benefits-of-school-uniforms.html

Richburg, J. (2010). School uniforms: good or bad idea. Retrieved from http://my.hsj.org/Schools/Newspaper/tabid/100/view/frontpage/schoolid/2714/articleid/379494/newspaperid/2744/School_Uniforms_Good_or_Bad_Idea.aspx

Wilde, M. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.greatschools.org/find-a-school/defining-your-ideal/121-school-uniforms.gs

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One Step Ahead of the Game

May 2, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Gifted Program, Public Education Programs, School Structure

 

Many students enter high school with their schedules planned out for all four years. As time progresses, the teenagers will change and mold their classes to their unique interests. At many schools, students are able to gain college credit for select upper level classes. These credits are beneficial to the high school students because they allow them to get a head start on their college careers while still taking the classes they enjoy; the credits also allow them to prepare for the rigorous academics they will face in college.

Presently, colleges are constantly increasing the requirements needed to be accepted into their institutions. With the changes taking place, students need to be able to increase their workloads drastically during high school to ensure they will be accepted into their college of choice. In order to aid the students, schools offer multiple ways to gain college credit before graduating from high school. Advanced Placement (AP) courses and dual enrollment are two of the most common methods used to attain these credits. The Princeton Review points out: “If you pass Intro to Psych as a ‘college’ course while in high school, you won’t need to take it again in college… Depending on your future undergraduate school, such classes may also satisfy core curriculum requirements. Basically, you can free up your college schedule so that you’ll be able to take more of the courses you want to take” (2011). AP classes have the same basic curriculum as normal high school courses, but at the end of the year, students take a test to pass out of the college level course. The colleges will decide whether or not to accept the credit based on the score the student receives on the AP exam. These Advanced Placement courses are offered in almost every core subject at the school. Dual enrollment also provides college credit, but in a different manner. Students who do not wish to take AP classes, but still want to attain extra credits can take dual enrollment courses: “Dual enrollment is a partnership between your high school and a college, usually one that is nearby. The partnership identifies specific classes at your high school. If you take these classes and pay a small fee, the college will award you a certain number of credits for passing the class” (The Princeton Review 2011). These classes are not taught by college professors, but by regular teachers at the students’ high school who have the qualifications to teach the courses. The grades students receive in the class will be placed on their college transcript, and at the end of the year they will not have to take an exam to earn credit. The dual enrollment option provides a less stressful environment for students, as their credit does not ride on a single exam. However, the downfall is that not all universities will accept the credits received by these kinds of courses. AP courses and dual enrollment give high school students the opportunity to get ahead in school so they may fulfill the requirements to enter into college, or start college with credits already under their belts.

Another important benefit of early college credits is the preparation of high school students for the college world. Over time, more students have begun to enroll in advanced courses that provide them with college credits. (See Fig. 1). Rigorous AP and dual enrollment courses give students an opportunity to immerse themselves in college subjects while still in high school. This allows the students to get used to the layout and workload of college courses. The differences between high school and college are often overlooked by many, but college freshmen can attest to the unexpected changes: “only 49% of high school seniors polled report that their school did a good job in preparing them for success in both college and the workplace” (Driscoll 2012). Students are surprisingly under prepared to go to college after graduating from high school. The implementation of these AP and dual enrollment options have allowed students to assimilate slowly to the rigorous schedule of college students. The executive director of AP Curriculum and Assessment at Collegeboard, Auditi Chakravarty, states that: “The pace, the amount of reading and writing, the types of lab experiences, and the research and other projects required are similar to what students can expect in college” (Fox Business 2012). By taking these advanced classes, students can better prepare themselves for their college experience. The direct benefits of AP classes and dual enrollment courses enable students to make the transition from high school to college in a smooth and calm manner.

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Figure 1. The average number of credits received by high school graduates between 1990-2009. Adapted from “Student Coursetaking in High School Mathematics and Science,” by National Science Board, 2012, Science and Engineering Indicators 2012. Adapted with permission.

High schools around the country offer many options for students to attain college credit while still in high school. The most common of these opportunities are Advanced Placement courses and dual enrollment. By participating in either of these programs, students are able to meet requirements needed to enter college and possibly start ahead of others; furthermore, students are also able to help themselves assimilate to college academics faster by introducing themselves to these college courses throughout high school. With the utilization of these unique opportunities in high schools, students across the country are able to get ahead of the game and prepare themselves for the future.

 

 

References

Driscoll, E. (Writer) (2012). Getting college credit in high school: Why wait? [Web series episode]. In Fox Business. Manhattan, NY: Fox News Network.

The Princeton Review. (2011, Februar 09). [Weblog message].

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Feed the Hungry

May 2, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Health, Public Education Programs

 

The food in school lunches has been a topic of discussion for many generations. The view of school lunches has gone from grotesque globs of inedible morsels to a grand buffet. These new age meals are not the frightening medieval foods that cause nightmares, but an assortment of healthy choices for kids. Since World War II, bills have been created to help schools provide healthy lunches for their students. The evolution of school lunches has provided a new hope for distressed families and hungry children to find healthy food. Modern school meals not only provide help for impoverished families but can also improve a student’s school performance.

Every child is told to eat lunch when he are young, but what happens when that child’s parents do not have enough money to feed them? School lunches give aid to this type of circumstance.  The National School Lunch Program (NSLP) was created in public schools to aid impoverished families: “The National School Lunch Program (NSLP) makes it possible for all school children in the United States to receive a nutritious lunch every school day” (Food 2010). This program was created to give nutritional lunches to all students in public schools. The program also  gives money and farm grown food to schools that give students healthy lunches: “NSLP provides per meal cash reimbursements to schools as an entitlement to provide nutritious meals to children… Schools participating in NSLP also receive agricultural commodities (unprocessed or partially processed foods) as a supplement to the per-meal cash reimbursements, in amounts based on the number of lunches they serve” (Food 2010).This helps the schools with funding and helps children stay well fed. These meals contribute many benefits to the children receiving them.

The benefits that kids reap in schools funded by the NSLP are huge. This NSLP is raved by the USDA: “USDA research indicates that children who participate in School Lunch have superior nutritional intakes compared to those who do not participate” (Food 2010). The more nourished kids are, the better they will do in the classroom. This plan started after World War II, when army physicians realized the connection between men being turned down for health reasons in the draft was directly related to the malnutrition in childhood.  The government saw this lack in nutrition for American children as “a measure of national security, to safeguard the health and well-being of the Nation’s children” (Food 2010). The government saw this as a way to help society’s children.

However, with this fund come guidelines for schools. The guidelines for the NSLP are quite simple and are focused on helping the nation’s children. This program will provide one-third or more of a child’s Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA). This means “These lunches are required to provide no more than 30 percent of calories from fat and less than 10 percent from saturated fat” (Food 2010). The goal of this is to decrease the obesity rate in schools. Another guideline for this program is that the school must enact a local school wellness program.  These programs are geared towards “…an opportunity to address obesity and promote healthy eating and physical activity through changes in school environments” (Food 2010).  These lunch policies are geared towards improving a child’s health and can also improve school performance.

Students who eat properly throughout the day are shown to have a better performance in school. By eating, student’s minds are more nourished and focused throughout the day. The stress of wondering whether a meal is coming or not can leave kids at a disadvantage in the classrooms. In a Quebec based study, it was found that “The researchers looked at high school students in disadvantaged neighborhoods and found that “household food insecurity”—basically not knowing where your next meal is going to come from—was strongly linked to academic difficulty in school” (What’s 2010).  These students are hindered by the constant distraction of not having enough food. Without this stress, students do better in schools: “They scored better in language testing, were less likely to be held back, and even rated their own performance higher” (What’s 2010). By not having the stress of food on their minds, students are more equipped to handle the everyday struggles.  The link between food and school performance is evident. The better a student eats, the better he will do in the classroom.

School lunches are a major part of school life and have improved over the years into great healthy options. Programs like the NSLP have helped impoverished families feed their children. These programs improve both the community and the schools. Also, by having these lunches schools improve the academic performances of the students. Eating well can help kids focus and be healthy. Having school lunches has an impact on a child’s education and his well being.

 

References

Food Research and Action Center (2010). Retrieved from: http://frac.org/federal-foodnutrition-programs/national-school-lunch-program/.

What’s for Lunch Program (2010). What’s for Lunch? Retrieved from: http://unpackingschoollunch.wordpress.com/2010/11/26/school-lunch-better-academic-performance/.

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Parenting 101

May 2, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Health, Public Education Programs

 

One of the largest taboos facing American culture is teen pregnancy. Often, society scolds the expecting parents, labeling the two as “irresponsible,” or the girl simply as “slutty.” However, with shows such as Teen Mom and 16 And Pregnant becoming increasingly more popular, the social stigma that comes with pregnancy at such a young age is being overlooked. Instead, the struggles that these girls are facing are being put on display. One of the largest of these dilemmas is the mother’s schooling. Many believe that girls who do find themselves with child should drop out of school to spend the majority of their time discovering the joys and tribulations of parenthood. Public schools, however, are providing alternative options of education for these stressed out teens, allowing these mommy-to-be’s to graduate from high school and find success in the years to come.

Teenagers -who are essentially children- often do not have the emotional stability to raise a child correctly. For this reason, many teenage mothers decide to drop out of school once they realize they are expecting. According to studies done by the Missionaries of the Sacred Heart, “Only 38% of teen mothers who have a child before the age of 18 graduate from high school, compared to approximately 75% of women who delay child bearing until 20-21… 30% of teen girls cited pregnancy or parenthood as a reason for dropping out of high school” (Teenage Pregnancy and Education). While this statistic is disheartening, it is not surprising. These moms are often not given the help they need by close family and friends to support both a school career and time to nourish a healthy parent-child relationship. In fact, within the first year of becoming a teen mother, 50% of these girls end up on welfare (Smith, 2005). To prevent these women from throwing their futures away along with the dirty diapers, public schools need to be providing services to help these helpless, and often time, troubled students.

Currently, public schools have been trying to allow their pregnant students a few amenities to alleviate the burden of tackling an education and parenthood. In her WNYC article, author Beth Fertig analyzes the state of public schools in New York and the options made available for teenage mothers. She happily reports that, “The New York City school system has a number of programs for pregnant and parenting teens. There are daycare centers in several high schools. And there are four separate schools just for pregnant teens and young mothers” (Fertig, 2004). Other states have followed New York’s attempts to accommodate these struggling girls. California, a state that bolsters an above-average teen pregnancy rate, has been implementing programs to help with expecting teens, instead of forcing them into low-budget, poorly managed alternative schools. In fact, more than 100,000 pregnant and parenting students participated in a program that provided tutors and other social services. The program had a 73% graduation rate for its students, mirroring the graduation rate for non-pregnant students in California public schools. However, this program has been recently cut due to major budget slashes: “California lawmakers…ruling [the program] was no longer mandatory, and allowed school districts to use the money for other programs…‘It’s unfortunate that this effective program fell prey to the enormous budget challenges we are facing as a state,’ said State Superintendent of Public Instruction Tom Torlakson” (Kennedy, 2012). School boards need to be cognizant of decisions such as these; by slashing successful programs, such as the one in California, teenage mothers feel unimportant and overlooked, leading to increases in drop-outs. Allowing for a generation of dejected, uneducated mothers could lead to possible increases in teenage convicts, teenagers on well-fare, and in extreme cases, teenagers engaged in prostitution.

Schools are not only implementing and proposing programs to deal with teen pregnancy, but they are also looking for new ways to prevent teens from even becoming pregnant. According to an article posted in the Public School Review, “the US has one of the highest teen pregnancy rates in the developed world—almost twice as high as those of England, Wales and Canada and eight times as high as those of the Netherlands and Japan” (Chen, 2008). However, New York is trying to combat this ridiculously high statistic. The Bloomberg administration is currently trying to mandate sexual education in high schools. It also encourages nurses currently working for the public school system to provide contraception, and the morning-after pill. (Taylor, 2013). These efforts will greatly reduce these unwanted pregnancies and will possibly eliminate the need for programs that support pregnant teens.

Problems facing today’s generation of teens include pimples, prom dates, and profile pictures. For a small portion of teenagers, however, their problems have become far more critical. A few girls and boys have to deal with late-night diaper changes and breast feeding. This margin of current youth has to juggle adulthood and the completion of childhood, which includes graduating from a standard four year high school. Because of this struggle, schools need to keep providing and improving on alternative forms of education and amenities to accommodate these future parents. America needs educated parents who can provide great care to their children, in order to ensure that the next generation is not only equipped for life, but are also happy.

 

References

Chen, G. (2008, September 20). Public Schools and Sex Education | PublicSchoolReview.com. Profiles of USA Public Schools | PublicSchoolReview.com. Retrieved February 25, 2013, from http://www.publicschoolreview.com/articles/46

Fertig, B. (2004, January 6). High School for Pregnant Teens and Young Mothers – WNYC. WNYC.com. Retrieved April 15, 2013, from http://www.wnyc.org/articles/wnyc-news/2004/jan/06/high-school-for-pregnant-teens-and-young-mothers/

Kennedy, K. (2012, November 22). Teen Pregnancy Study: Students Need Better School Support. huffingtonpost.com. Retrieved April 15, 2013, from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/11/24/teen-pregnancy-study-stud_n_2185062.html

Smith, A. (2005, July 21). Teen Pregnancy Statistics – Teen Pregnancy . Teen Help – Advice for Parents and Teens. Retrieved April 15, 2013, from http://www.teenhelp.com/teen-pregnancy/teen-pregnancy-statistics.html

Taylor, K. (2013, March 6). City Campaign Targeting Teenage Pregnancy Draws Criticism – NYTimes.com. The New York Times – Breaking News, World News & Multimedia. Retrieved April 15, 2013, from http://www.nytimes.com/2013/03/07/nyregion/city-campaign-targeting-teenage-pregnancy-draws-criticism.html?_r=0

Teenage Pregnancy and Education. (2003, March 19). misacor-usa.org. Retrieved April 15, 2013, from http://misacor-usa.org/index.php/teenage-pregnancy-and-education

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Mary Lou Taylor: Opinion on Public Education

May 1, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Guest

Mary Lou Taylor is currently the vice president of the Tempe Union High School District Governing Board.  She has been on the board for eleven years.  Also, she has taught at numerous public schools for 38 years.

In my opinion, public education is the most valuable program in America. Our Founding Fathers placed high value on education. Every young person in America is privileged to experience the very best free K–12 education.

Over the years, schools have changed, curricula have changed, and how students learn has improved and expanded. Today students have many choices about where and how they will be educated. With competition from charter schools, private schools, and opportunities for online classes, public education has made many changes to keep up. Competition is good, however, and public schools are all the better for it.

With updated curricula; technology; common standards; online classes; science, technology, engineering, and mathematics emphases; and many other programs, students in public schools have the opportunity to get a world-class education that will prepare them to meet the demands of the workforce of the 21st century.

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Progress

May 1, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Public Education Programs, School Structure, Technology

 

Education has been an important topic in America for decades. Whether motivated by foreign superpowers or an increasingly competitive global job market, there has always been an effort to improve further the American public school system. In the late 1950s, President Eisenhower’s Science Advisory Committee stressed the importance of strong academic achievement, as well as the real-world need for scientists and engineers – fields which rely on well-educated individuals. Today, much progress has been made in the goals outlined by the committee. Schools and organizations continue to push forward in order to create a country of accomplished young people who are prepared to succeed in the world and continue learn for their entire lives.

In 1959, the President’s Science Advisory Committee released a report containing twenty-two recommendations for improving public education in America. The proposed changes pertain to such areas as incentives to make teaching more attractive to quality candidates, programs for gifted students, and an increase in the education budget. (“Strengthen education,” 1959) Over 40 years later, public education has made great improvements in regards to these goals. For example, one would be hard-pressed to locate a teacher at Desert Vista who does not show dedication to the job and exert a remarkable level of effort in order to create optimal learning conditions. This contrasts with the less-than-motivated teacher stereotype depicted in generations past, such as in the movie Ferris Bueller’s Day Off, which is now more than 25 years old. Commendable progress clearly has been made since the release of the report, as shown by the continued improvement of the state of education.

For as much positive change as there has been, it is equally as remarkable that the progress-oriented attitude of hard-working Americans has resulted in efforts to continue the beneficial growth of education. One suggestion made in the Eisenhower committee’s report is receiving increased attention today: “We should move much further in the direction of adapting our educational programs to the widely varying competence of students, and seek especially to meet the needs of the most gifted students” (“Strengthen education,” 1959). Interestingly, a strong supporter of this idea is the Khan Academy, a non-profit organization founded by Salman Khan. Khan’s web site offers instructional videos on a variety of school subjects, from arithmetic to college-level concepts; the primary focus is mathematics, science and economics, although there are also videos pertaining to computer science and humanities. Khan, although not a trained educator, has developed a new type of curriculum in which students watch Khan Academy lessons, and then do practice problems, provided by either the web site or the teacher. Teachers then focus individually with students who are struggling with a concept, while those who have mastered it are able to move on to the next lesson. This self-paced model of education is not a traditional approach to learning, but it does resemble the ideas put forward in the Eisenhower report.

Khan has developed his personal philosophy on education without any hard evidence supporting his position. However, schools across the country are reaching out to his organization, looking to incorporate his lessons into their teaching strategy. On the topic of how schools can use the tool, Shantanu Sinha, President of the Khan Academy, wrote a blog post for the Huffington Post describing how it has already been implemented in a small number of American schools. In the 2011 school year, the Los Altos school district in California began using the Khan Academy. What the involved parties observed convinced the people behind the Khan Academy to stand by their innovative teaching format:

At the end of the school year, we all knew it was a success. Teachers could see a dramatic change in their students’ excitement and enthusiasm towards Math. Students who traditionally struggled with the material were more confident and engaged. Other students were challenging themselves to levels we never thought possible. Common sense told everyone involved that we were on to something. (Sinha, 2011)

Despite support from the majority of the teachers and students involved, the Khan people are not trying to force their curriculum on anyone. They have continued to add more lessons on an increasing array of subjects, but wait for schools to reach out to them, at which point a unique cooperative plan is formed. Their strategy could be compared to how a library operates: it is available to everyone for free, but instead of trying to make library cards mandatory, people must discover it for themselves. Despite the academy’s unobtrusive promotion, thousands of students from numerous schools have had its videos directly embedded into their learning experience.

There exists some amount of hard evidence supporting the benefits of the Khan Academy. Data taken from the Los Altos school district compares standardized test results from the years 2010 and 2011, measuring performance before and after integration if the Khan Academy. Seventh graders who were in classrooms utilizing Khan Academy saw improved scores:

Math performance levels

Percentage of students at each level

graph07

Figure 1. Math performance levels. Adapted from “Does Khan Academy Really Work?” by S. Sinha, 2011, Huffington Post Blog, Copyright 2011 by the Huffington Post. Adapted with permission.

Even after the students had spent the school year focusing on whatever Khan Academy lessons they needed or wanted (rather than ones strictly modeled around the state tests), when they were tested on standardized material, there was an 18% increase in the number of students who scored “Proficient” or “Advanced.” The improvement is clear and is unique to students who were part of the pilot program. Other students showed no noticeable improvement in their test scores. (Sinha, 2011) While not a formal scientific study, the Los Altos data provides preliminary evidence in favor of the Khan Academy.

Test scores, testimonies and speculation all seem to point toward the Khan Academy being a potentially revolutionary development in education. If the Khan Academy really has such an advantage over the one to twenty-something teacher-to-student radio for lectures found in most classrooms today, does that mean there is no longer a need for teachers? If Salman Khan were asked, the answer would be “absolutely not.” In a Khan Academy video discussing the group’s view on education, he brings up the goal and question of, “How do we use [the tools and resources of the virtual] to actually empower the physical?” (Khan Academy, 2012) On the virtual blackboard which the video depicts, Khan draws an arrow from the words “Tool/Resource” to “Physical,” the latter of which he underlines extensively, stressing the importance of the teacher. The purpose of their educational plan is not to do away with teachers in the classroom, but rather to allocate more time for one-on-one teaching, group work and hands-on projects. For all of these important learning needs, a physical teacher is required.

While the overhaul of the present public education structure has the potential to be perceived as radical or impractical, there is a growing amount of data supporting the idea that it may have potential to enhance the learning experience of Americans. Returning to the ideas of the President’s Science Advisory Committee, it seems that the Khan Academy is simply taking further steps to meet the goals of providing more opportunities for academically talented students and tailoring education to each student’s abilities. While many districts already have excellent gifted programs with rigorous coursework and healthy levels of difficulty, the American spirit contains within itself the necessity and ability to strive for eternal improvement. Thus, regardless of  one’s opinion on whether Khan’s ambitions are a viable means of improving public education, there must exist a certain respect for his drive to expand the capabilities of the country’s education system and the children for whom it is responsible.

 

References

(1959). Strengthen education. The Science News-Letter, 75(23), 357. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2307/3940360

Khan Academy. (2012, August 3). Khan Academy vision. Retrieved February 18, 2013, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a6kwIBI3j98.

Sinha, S. (2011, October 12). [Web log message]. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/shantanu-sinha/does-khan-academy-really-_b_946969.html

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A Delicate Flower

May 1, 2013 in 2012-2013, Abstract, Archive, Articles, Fine Arts, Public Education Programs

 

Think of education as a delicate, yet adaptable flower. The roots of it grew through the seeds of agriculture and continued to be watered as history progressed and technology advanced. As far as history can recount, the existence of the first civilizations derived from Egypt. As other tribes began to form, an incessant need for communication became imperative, and measures reached new heights where communication became possible for the first time. Thus, the seed began to grow its roots into the ground of education.  Arguably some of the most intelligent minds in history, Egyptians began to create tablets and paper in order to have an object that could aid in the attempt for communication. When a language was finally developed, memorization and motivation became the key devices for implementing this vernacular, and physical punishment was cursed upon those who were not able to progress with the rest of society. Through the Egyptian culture initiating language and writing untensils, the creations of buildings, cars, factories, and homes started the educational stem of the flower. Once industrialization began to expand off of the basic theories that had been developed by Egyptians many years prior, schools were installed in hopes of continuing the legacy of societal improvement; from this, the developing weed bloomed into a vivacious flower. Once education became a key component in society, positive futuristic visions formed from the communications, buildings, and cultural diversity that triggered intellectual involvement today.

It can be inferred that communication is the building block to all success, due to the amount of collaboration and brainstorming society has used to increase its success rate. Acting also as the seed of the educational flower planted back in 3100 BC, communication triggers the creation of paper, language, and writing. According to multiple sources, such as online article, History of Our World, the past creates the present. If it were not for the invention of these methods of communication, there would be no recording of historical activities, which leaves the world empty in the sense of comparison to the improvements time has brought:  “To be able to function in complex societies, man needed some way of accumulating, recording, and preserving his cultural heritage” (Newman 1). Communications provides various forms of recreation for the world as it allows people to talk with one another, facts and inferences to be recorded, and beholds historical information at it is passed down from one generation to another. With the creation of communication came the formation of a language, the gateway to a past, and the planting of a flower.

A few thousand years after the rise and perish of Egyptian civilizations, Roman cities began to make their appearance. Rising from the ruins, Romans obtained the communication skills from the base of the Egyptians, yet longed for homes that were more complex and luxurious than those of huts. Creating buildings from similar condiments that Egyptians used for their communicational tablets, Roman architects mastered styles that had never been seen before. However, before building homes for citizens, as common sense would hint, schools were constructed. With aims of world domination, the Roman Empire forced all children to attend schooling by the age of six in order to be taught the procedures of military conquest. Roman laws, history and customs were emphasized on the minds of young girls so that the educational facts, forgotten by the combat motivated boys, were not forgotten: “Along with laws, history, and customs came the emphasis on oratory superiority; a life without the ability of charismatic speech was a useless life” (Newman 2). With focus on such petty subjects, the Roman Empire was vulnerable to defeat, and fell, teaching the world what to avoid when progress in technology and unity is the desired goal. With these events, the roots of the educational flower were able to absorb the knowledge of unique building skills that Romans obtained and demolish the governmental plans that were unsuccessful.

The most prominent aid in historical education would undoubtedly be cultural diversity. Through the collaborations of the beliefs, rituals, and intelligence of different communities, a world void of diversity was evaded. To say the least, the advancements society has breached today are largely attributed to the varying skills of the numerous communities who have lived before us.  Through the myths of the Greeks, the architecture of the Romans, and the inventions of the Egyptians, the educational flower of the world’s past was nurtured with immense amounts of water and sunshine. Many of the words existing in the English dialect are contrived of Latin words, whereas, many of the world’s greatest architects are inspire the foundation of today’s communities. By using schools to discover about facts such as these, students learn the root of all success and the history of how their education began: “The history of the world’s education lies solely within the depths of the numerous cultures amid the mists of a forgotten past” (Newman 3). Although some students despise education and find the repetitive nature of it pointless, it is crucial that they understand that everything they know derived from a little thing called cultural diversity.

An agricultural seed, a communication root, an architectural stem, and diverse leaves call for the blooming of a beautiful flower that is called education. The history of education began with Egyptians creating objects they found necessary for survival. From the concoctions of the Egyptians, the world began to piggy back off of the success that had been accomplished, adding new twists and reaching compromises along the way. If it were not for the ancestors of this world, today’s society would be nonexistent. As long as the flower of education remains in tact and is cherished through the increasing advancements the world makes through its knowledge, prosperity will always be a reward.

 

Reference

The Education of Our World. (2003). Benefits Never Cease. Chicago: Blake Newman

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The Outweighing Benefits of Public Education

May 1, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Public Vs. Private, School Structure

 

There has long been a debate surrounding the overall supremacy of public school over private school. However, it is easy to surmise that that longevity and seniority rule in this situation, thus making public schooling far superior. A definitive conclusion can be drawn on superiority based on multiple aspects, such as: longevity, cultural blending, and economic stability. When studying these three aspects of educational progress, it comes down to the fact that public schooling is superior Due to Private schools are taught by a teacher’s aide, funded by private organizations and reliant upon both the generosity of student’s parents and the endorsements from organizations: “Funding for private schools is generally provided through student tuition, endowments, scholarship/voucher funds, and donations and grants from religious organizations or private individuals” (Wood, 2011). Public schools are consistently funded by the federal government: a continuous, worry free stream of funding.

One of the major debates is that of diversity-cultural and social blending- in the schooling environment. Generally private schools offer education prices and religious presets that do not apply to some minorities and racial groups. The average cost for a private day school in America is forty thousand dollars: “As of 2012, quality private schools in the United States charged substantial tuition, close to forty thousand dollars annually for day schools in New York City, and nearly $50,000 for boarding schools.” (Wood, 2011). Public schools blend all different kinds of children, not only providing a cultural experience, but also a social education. Public schools give kids the opportunity to learn about different social and economic groups that private schools simply cannot offer: “Public schools have played an important part in closing the gap between wealthy and poor students on measures of intelligence” (Mitra, 2010). This quote by Professor Dana Mitra, Associate Professor of Education at Pennsylvania State University, fully explains and exemplifies the way that public schools contribute to the people gumbo that is the American cultural society. In addition to a social education, public schools offer education to any and every child they can.

Public schools are more than willing to accept any child who wants to and is willing to learn, while private schools only accept few who meet their exclusive standards. This all-are-welcome notion that public schools hold leads to a more positive up and coming outlook on the rest of the student’s life: “The cumulative impact of these educational benefits helps individuals to have more options for and to make better decisions about their lives.  Improved options and decision-making includes better choices about work, better risk assessment concerning deviant or criminal behavior, and better personal health choices” (Mitra, 2010). This quote shows the incredible impact that public schooling can have even years after a student has graduated.

Many advocates of private education will raise the fact that, on average, most private school students score higher on reading exams than public school children. This point, however, is incredibly biased and self-guided. Private school students make up a mere 10% of the country’s students, a total of about 5.5 million. This vastly inferior percentage leads to a lower “per-classroom” count of students, which in turn leads to increased personalization of teaching for the individual student. Public schools, while not having the luxury of small class sizes, still make sure to the best of their ability that students understand the information being put forth. Private school teachers hold the same mindset as college professors, and both are paid regardless of how a student preforms in class. This mindset sometimes hinders the student’s ability to learn and excel by creating a hostile and ignorant attitude.

Considering these points, it is increasingly apparent that public schools hold benefits that the vast majority of private schools simply cannot reach. Combined with public school’s longevity and cultural advantages, one can easily surmise that public schools offer very different experiences than private schools. However due to the reasons listed above, combined with the messages and cultural advantages that public schools display more than outweigh anything a private school has to offer.

 

References

Mitra, D. (n.d.). The Social and Economic Benefits of Public Education. Pennsylvania’s Best Investment, 42.

Wood, D. (n.d.). Private vs. Public: The Great Debate | Education.com. Education.com | An Education & Child Development Site for Parents | Parenting & Educational Resource.  Retrieved from http://www.education.com/magazine/article/Ed_Private_vs_Schools/

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Rachel Leaves her Mark on Desert Vista

May 1, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, School Events

 

The Columbine High School Shooting went down in American history as two senior students created the deadliest mass murder on a high school campus. In the city of Columbine, Colorado, a total of 12 students were killed, including Rachel Joy Scott. She was a bright, young girl who touched the lives of hundreds of people. Her smile was contagious and spread among the communities as her voice was heard, loudly and clearly. Shortly before her death she wrote: “I have this theory that if one person can go out of their way to show compassion, then it will start a chain reaction of the same. People will never know how far a little kindness can go” (Rachel Scott). These words were in her diary, written right before her life was ended. Rachel left a legacy of reaching out to those who were different, who were picked on by others, or who were new at her school. Unfortunately, despite her kind message, over 160,000 students are still afraid to go to school due to the bullying and harassment. Her mark on the school campus was still imprinted after she was killed, as Rachel’s Challenge was introduced. On Monday, January 28th, 2013, a spokesperson from this non-profit organization came to Desert Vista High School. The administration gathered the students in the gymnasium. The room went silent as the students intently listened Rachel’s story. This program is based on the life of Rachel Scott and it is important for the students to her message of the chain reaction of kindness and its importance on public education.

The program was founded after the tragedy in a nationwide effort to prevent teen violence. Her dad and stepmom founded the program when they realized their daughter was an influence on her friends and classmates, as well as complete and utter strangers. Rachel was passionate about life and knew with certainty, one day she would change the world. Another aspect of public education, besides excelling in school and performing well on standardized tests,  is the environment and the people that make up the student body. Rachel’s Challenge is a series of student empowering programs and strategies that equip students and adults to combat bullying and feelings of isolation and despair by creating a culture of kindness and compassion. Many students today say, “Rachel, thank you for coming to our high school and saving me” (Morgan Smith, student at Crookston High School). Multiple teenagers show their gratitude towards Rachel through various forms of communication including social media and websites. More than 18 million people have been touched by Rachel’s message, and they continue the legacy of making a difference in their communities. Each year at least two million more people are added to that number (Parker, 2013). These are just a couple of the results of Rachel’s Challenge. In one survey, 78% more students indicated they would definitely intervene in a bullying incident in their school after seeing Rachel’s Challenge.

This organization came to Desert Vista to spread the kindness, and make the campus a better environment both socially and academically. Rachel Scott’s personal statements captivated Desert Vista students as they listened in silence to the description of her life and the horrendous tragedy to end it. Shortly after the presentation, many students were in tears as promises were made. The teenagers on campus vowed to become better people and signed up to take Rachel’s Challenge. Included within this big project are five little challenges students can achieve on their own time, whether it is on campus or in the Ahwatukee community. Rachel’s Challenge encourages participants to take part in these five opportunities to change the world: look for best in others, dream big, choose positive influences, speak with kindness, and start your own Chain Reaction (2003). After the assembly, 100 students were chosen as the founding members of Desert Vista’s Friends of Rachel Club. This unique program helps by spreading the kindness around school. Students continue to support the community in any way they can and recognize those who do not get the recognition they deserve. The main goal of this club is to help create a permanent cultural change in Desert Vista.

While her life was tragically cut short during the Columbine High School shooting on April 20, 1999, Rachel Joy Scott’s shining example of kindness and compassion was not defeated that day. In 2001, she was posthumously awarded the National Kindness Award for Student of the Year. She is still remembered today as her story is spreading like wildfire, traveling throughout the schools, echoing through the halls of Desert Vista High School. By turning the story of a tragic death at Columbine High School into a mission for change, Rachel’s Challenge is helping create safer learning environments and making a worldwide impact.

 

 

References:

Parker, L. (2013, March). School’s to Take on Rachel’s Challenge. The Daily News. Retrieved from:  http://www.gobogalusa.com/news/article

Rachel’s Challenge. (2003, April). Retrieved fromhttp://www.rachelschallenge.org/big-picture/programs/high-school/challenge/

Scott, R. (n.d.). A Journey of Faith at Columbine High. (1999).

 

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A Local Family’s Dilemma, Public or Private High School: An Interview

May 1, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Guest

My brother’s friend Aidan has been struggling with a tough decision. “Do I go to the public school, which has a strong reputation for excellence in academics or do I go to the private Catholic school, with an impressive academic reputation and is top in the state in my sport?” I had a chance to sit down with his parents and talk to them about their decision making process and their ultimate final choice.

Jake: What grade is your student in?

Schramms: He’s currently an 8th grader at Altadena Middle School

Jake: Has he always been in the public school system?

Schramms: Yes he has along with our daughter, a 5th grader at Cerritos Elementary School

Jake: What were some of the key decisions you had to make to decide where to send your son Aidan for high school?

Schramms: Class size, academic reputation, cost and extracurricular activities are just some of the factors we considered. It certainly isn’t all of them, but these played a big part in our decision making process.

Jake: Can you tell me the thought process you used to ultimately make your decision?

Schramms: In order to determine which was best there were several factors to we had to consider.  The private High School we were considering was much smaller that our local public school with smaller class sizes, which reportedly can result in students having closer relationships with their teachers and guidance counselors than those in public schools.  This in turn can improve chances when it comes to getting into a good college, as does the general reputation of the private school.  The private school we were considering has a fantastic reputation and all the families that we know whose sons attend speak extremely highly of it. However, at a cost of at least $13,500 per year we had to determine if this was cost–effective.

Our local public school is also rated very highly with good academics as well as many extra-curricular activities/opportunities.  Its students do well in national testing and are offered a diverse choice of electives, including those that earn college credit.  However, as our son is a swimmer the private High School is superior as it has the best swim team in the State.  It is also a male-only school which we believe is an advantage because it removes a lot of the drama form the classroom, leaving more time to focus on what is important.   But, it is also almost 30 miles away and would require a long daily commute, whereas the public school is 2 miles away with a school bus stop 100 yards from our home.  The local High School has the same school breaks as our younger child whereas choosing the private school would necessitate separate fall and springs breaks, which would disturb our ritual vacations. This was definitely a factor for us as a family. 

Jake: There was a lot of soul searching and agonizing wasn’t there?

Schramms: Yes. We talked about this for quite some time and tried to come up with the best decision possible. Although we didn’t feel we could go wrong either way, it still was a very difficult decision.

Jake: What do you think was the hardest part of the decision making process?

Schramms: There isn’t a huge difference in the schools when it really came down to it. Both are academically strong, which is the most important consideration. However, that made the decision even harder.

Jake: What was your final conclusion?

Schramms: Ultimately, while we believe that the private school would open more doors and provide somewhat better opportunities for our son, we chose the public High School because the difference between the two schools was not sufficient to justify the cost and the upheaval that choosing the private school would cause to our family.

This is one families dilemma of public verses private school. It highlights some of the key areas to consider when making the final decision. The Schramms were very thorough in their process and feel justified in their ultimate decision. My brother Kris is very excited that his friend Aidan will be joining him in High School next year.

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Peer Tutoring in Public Schools

April 30, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Public Education Programs

                One of the most successful benefits of a public school is the massive amount of help that a student can receive from peer tutoring.  Peer tutoring clubs can offer free help for struggling students that will help raise both their confidence and academic performance. Peer tutoring not only benefits the struggling student, but it also helps both the tutor and the school. Tutors can also receive a boost in their leadership and communication skills as a result of teaching their peers. Peer tutoring has a wide variety of benefits for the tutor, the tutee1—and the teachers.

Peer tutoring has had a significant impact on public schools but more especially on the tutees. Students have the flexibility to decide when they will be tutored. Peer tutoring also provides the students with much more confidence than they had before they started being tutored because of the comfortable environment where they learn. This higher level of confidence results in the tutee performing better in school and the tutee’s positive outlook towards school. According to the National Tutoring Association, peer tutoring: “Improves self confidence, self-esteem, academic achievement, and the student’s attitude towards the subject matter and school in general” (2002). Students not only improve their grades but also receive an increased level of confidence and self-esteem as a result of peer tutoring.

There are also some benefits in receiving peer tutoring, rather than just teacher instruction. Students feel more comfortable around their peers than they do around teachers, which can lead to better retention of information and help the students learn much more than they would have with the teacher. According to Brendan Dabkowski, writer of The History of Peer Tutoring: “Studies have been done to support the claim that many students may feel more at ease, and thus can concentrate better on the subject matter, with a peer tutor rather than a professional teacher or consultant” (2000). An increased level of comfort is extremely essential to the quality of the student’s learning, which helps improve the student’s academic performance. Students tend to seek out help from their peers because of the connection they may have with their tutors. The one on one instruction that is received through peer tutoring can result in the student constantly paying attention and showing higher levels of responsiveness than when learning from their teachers. According to the Learning and Teaching Resource Centre, Goodlad and Hirst, writers of many peer tutoring books, proposed: “There are four main benefits for tutees when they seek out peer help: tutees receive individualized instruction, tutees receive more teaching, tutees respond better to their peers than to their teachers, and tutees can obtain companionship from the students that tutor them” (2004). Through peer tutoring, students can make more friends and learn more with higher levels of comfort than in the classroom.

Many students take advantage of peer tutoring for one crucial reason: peer tutoring is cheap.  In comparison to other tutoring agencies such as Kumon and Sylvan, peer tutoring is very inexpensive, and at many schools it is even free. Students feel comfortable knowing that they can easily get help when they want it, and they do not have to pay in order to get help. The National Tutoring Association states: “Peer tutoring is well worth the cost and effort when compared with the efforts of many alternatives that are teacher or computer mediated” (2002). Struggling students who also come from low-income families may have a hard time paying for tutors, but peer tutoring provides students with free tutoring that can even put poorer students at ease. According to Freddie Silver, former writer for the Toronto District School Board: “Peer tutors also do not usually receive monetary payment for their services. This is especially beneficial for families who cannot afford the expense of home tutoring” (2012). The low cost of peer tutoring is helpful for all students, but more specifically, for the low income students who need to be tutored. All students have the opportunity to be peer tutored due to its cheap price. The fact that peer tutoring is available to all students is very important and one of the reasons why peer tutoring is extremely effective.

Peer tutoring not only benefits the tutee but also the tutor. Tutoring helps the tutor as much as it helps the tutee and is beneficial for the tutor in many ways.  Tutors gain a heightened sense of responsibility which will be very helpful when they start their professional jobs. According to George Mason University: “Peer tutoring can lead to increased self-confidence, real-life experience, and preparation for the collaborative work often done in college and in the workforce” (2009). Through tutoring, students can be better prepared for what they will have to face later in life. Furthermore, even though the tutors are teaching others, they are also teaching themselves. The tutors learn more than they did before they started tutoring and begin to score better on tests. The National Tutoring Association stated: “Tutors improve subject specific knowledge and facilitate a deeper understanding of the subject matter. They also improve their knowledge of learning, studying, and test-taking techniques” (2002). Although, peer tutoring is meant to teach the tutee, it consequently teaches the tutor at the same time. Peer tutoring may seem like it is mostly beneficial to the tutee, but it is equally beneficial to the tutor.

In addition, teachers experience the results of the implementation of peer tutoring clubs into public schools. One of the most obvious benefits is less work. Because peer tutoring has started to become more popular, the weight on the teacher’s shoulders has been lifted. According to Rebecca Mayglothling, lesson plan writer for eHow Moms:

Teachers, particularly those in larger classrooms, can use peer tutoring to ensure that every student will receive one-on-one instruction. The teacher has the advantage of having material explained to the students twice in two separate methods. Not every person learns best in a large classroom setting, and grouping students into smaller pairs assists those students who need a more narrow focus to concentrate on the classroom concepts. (2010)

Peer tutoring provides teachers with the advantage of offering their students differentiated instruction and individualized help. For teachers who struggle to find time to offer their students one on one help, peer tutoring is the perfect solution. Teachers can enjoy the rewards that come from taking advantage of the opportunity to utilize peer tutoring.

Although peer tutoring has displayed many beneficial results, there are reasons why some people do not agree with the concept. There are parents who are not fond of having their children being tutored by a peer and would rather have their children tutored more professionally by teachers. The parents’ disagreement with peer tutoring can affect their children’s involvement in the program. According to Erin Schreiner, contributor for eHow: “If a parent is not committed to the program, he may, intentionally or not, transmit this lack of excitement to his child, making his student less committed to the program” (2011). When the parent is not involved, then the student does not feel like he or she has to participate. The parent’s involvement in the program can easily affect whether his or her child benefits or suffers from the program.

Another problem that is currently being debated is the selection of tutors. People may argue that tutors may be selected based on their academic successes alone. Contrary to popular belief, students need much more than brains in order to become tutors. According to Freddie Silver: “The tutor must be reliable and committed to the success of the student in need, or the program could lead to additional frustrations for the special-needs student” (2012). If the tutors are aloof or torpid, then the tutees will not receive the quality learning that they should be receiving. There are many characteristics to take into account when selecting tutors. Intelligence is not the only qualification for becoming a tutor.

The truth of the matter is that peer tutoring can be a more effective alternative of learning in the classroom. Students get the one on one help that may not have been possible to receive from the teacher. According to the National Tutoring Association: “When children teach children, the result is marked improvement in student learning which increases the productivity of the school” (2002). Peer tutoring is a very efficient program that greatly improves the academic performance of many students. Although parents may think the tutors unfit and people may not agree with some of the tutors that are selected, the benefits that arise from peer tutoring significantly outweigh those that come from in-class learning. Peer tutoring is the most effective way to ensure that the student increases academic performance and improves his or her outlook towards school.

Across the nation, there are many examples of where the implementation of peer tutoring into a high school has proven to be extremely beneficial. For one high school in particular, Desert Vista High School, the addition of a peer tutoring club has proven to be utterly useful for the student body. According to Brian Johnson, founder of DV Peer Tutoring, peer tutoring: “benefits the tutor by reinforcing what the tutor already knows.  It also benefits the tutee by giving him/her additional and individualized academic assistance” (Apr. 25, 2013). Not only does DV Peer Tutoring help students academically, but it also increases the student’s level of confidence by providing a comfortable one on one learning environment. Brian Johnson continues:

In class learning is much different because you have one teacher and 35 students.  In peer tutoring you have one “teacher” and one student.  It’s so much better to learn from a one-on-one basis.  In addition, students oftentimes feel more comfortable getting help from peers so they are able to learn the material even better, and students are able to form a mentor type relationship which can boost self confidence and self worth. (Apr.25, 2013)

Students who participate in DV Peer Tutoring are not only helping themselves but also their teachers. Brian Johnson also states: “Peer tutoring helps teachers with the responsibility of helping all students learn.  Teachers are so busy these days so they need extra help in reaching their students, and peer tutoring does exactly this” (Apr. 25, 2013). Teachers now have the ability to get work done and feel assurance that their students are receiving quality help. This peer tutoring club, known as DV Peer Tutoring, has proven to be extremely essential for the tutors, tutees, and teachers of Desert Vista High School.

Peer tutoring has produced many benefits for public schools across the nation because of the many people that it helps. Tutees receive free, comprehensive, and individualized help while the tutors learn more about what they teach and gain a sense of responsibility. Academic achievement and preparation for the future are among the many benefits that peer tutoring can offer. Teachers also benefit from peer tutoring because it helps their students perform better in class. Peer tutoring improves academic performance with less time and effort that may have been expended if the student sought out help from the teacher. The benefits of peer tutoring far exceed the idea of improvement in academic performance because peer tutoring does much more than that. It can increase self confidence, improve behavior, and provide the tutors with important life skills. Peer tutoring is important for some students because it can be seen as a great alternative for learning in class or for enrolling in a tutoring agency such as Sylvan, but for other students it can even be seen as an only option. Today, thousands of students and teachers enjoy the benefits of peer tutoring.

 

 

References

Dabkowski, B. (2000). The History of Peer Tutoring. Retrieved from http://wrt-intertext.syr.edu/viii/dabkowski.html

George Mason University (2009). The Writing Center. Retrieved from http://writingcenter.gmu.edu/highschoolwritingcenters/sites.google.com/site/hswritingcenters/tutors/tutor-benefits.php

Johnson, B. (2013, April 25). Email Interview.

Learning and Teaching Resource Centre (2004). Retrieved from http://ltrc.edc.polyu.edu.hk/student02_1.html

Mayglothling, R. (2010). eHow Mom. Retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/info_8590849_benefits-peer-tutoring-programs.html

National Tutoring Association (2002). Aristotle Circle. Retrieved from http://peers.aristotlecircle.com/uploads/NTA_Peer_Tutoring_Factsheet_020107.pdf

Schreiner, E. (2011). eHow Mom. Retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/info_8469871_negative-effects-peer-tutoring.html

Silver, F. (2012). eHow Mom. Retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/info_8385009_advantages-disadvantages-peer-tutoring.html

 

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Preparing for the Future

April 30, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Common Core, School Structure

When teachers and students think of the most intelligent countries in the world, the United States does not usually come up as a choice. The children of the United States are capable of being equally as intelligent as the rest of the world; however, the children in the U.S. have lower standards and expectations than much of the other countries. Arizona has begun to take the initiative in changing those standards. Common Core Standards, in Arizona, are creating harder and more rigorous expectations for the K-12 to prepare students for future endeavors.

On June 28, 2010, Arizona adopted the new ACCS (Arizona Common Core Standards). These criteria provide a framework in language arts and mathematics to prepare students for college (Trevizo, 2013). Kathy Hrabluk, ADE’s Associate Superintendent of High Academic Standards for Students, explains Arizona’s Common Core Standards and what they mean for Arizona educators, students and families: “common core standards are aligned to strong standards internationally and these standards are designed to build deep think and critical thinking skills in our students” (Hrabluk, 2012). The standards also line up with college and work expectations. They are clear, logical, and reliable. The CCS builds upon the strengths and lessons of current state standards so the change in learning is not too drastic or blown out of proportion. In order to ensure that the teachers are consistent in their teaching, Arizona is a leading state in the Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers or PARCC test. This test will replace the existing AIMS tests that students must pass to graduate high school (Trevizo, 2013). It will go into effect in 2014 and will be an assessment of the new Common Core Standards. PARCC states have committed to building a K-12 assessment system that: “builds a pathway to college and career readiness for all students, creates high-quality assessments that measure the full range of the Common Core State Standards, supports educators in the classroom, makes better use of technology in assessments, and advances accountability at all levels” (Achieve Inc., 2013). This ensures that the students are learning and understanding the tougher expectations the state has implimented. The bottom line is a high school diploma is not enough in our 21st century. Our K-12 system is also not adequately preparing our students for college. Having this new testing will generate many positives for students, teachers, parents, and the state. Students will know if they are on track for college. Furthermore, teachers will have access to timely data to guide learning and instruction. Parents will have a great idea of their children’s progress throughout their school life, and the state will have valid results that are comparable across borders. In general, these tests will prepare K-12 students for the future.

To understand the complete difference between the old and new standards, specific details must be explained. In the language arts section of the standards, the type of text that is read has changed. For example, in the primary grades K-5, the students used to read a great deal of fiction and narratives. However, with the new standards, younger grades are required to read more informational text. This is an illustration of a change with the new standards. As far as mathematics goes, children in grades such as first will begin learning remedial algebra. Instead of knowing 2+3=5, the students will need to know 2+what=5. This idea is to guarantee that students have a good understanding of place value and addition. In the higher levels of math, kids are encouraged to think of multiple ways to solve the same problem. In high school, the state is expecting the students to: “use the processes they have learned and apply it to real world application . . . taking the mathematical concepts and determining themselves where they need to use those particular math skills in, let’s say, a robotics class” (Hrabluk, 2012). In order to make this shift, the teachers and educators must be re-trained. There are three phases that the teachers are required to go through. The first phase is deconstructing standards. This means informing the teachers about the new standards. Phases two is teaching the educators the best, most effective way to go about teaching the new expectations. Phases three is the idea of project based learning. The teachers will not be teaching completely linear to the standards, everyone is at different spots, but all these areas are extremely important. The state has trained 360 trainers who will retrain the teachers by using these three phases.

Many people ask why a change is needed. Kathy Hrabluk addresses this question in her interview: “about 40% of college graduates must take remedial course work post-secondary . . . the business world is telling us there simply are going to be no jobs available to students who only have a high school diploma or less” (Hrabluk, 2012). Kathy, as well as many other concerned educators, is worried about our graduating high schools students. They stress that our children are our future, and without them, our education system will fail. The new Common Core Standards have so many benefits to public schools as a whole. The main advantage of these standards is to prepare high school students for the future. As Kathy stated, without this shift in educational efficiency, our youth will not be able to acquire any type of job; the requests that high schools demand are too low.  Another benefit of Common Core is it will provide more stability for the mobile student. We have to have consistency with the learning targets for each grade level. Having a clear idea of what the standards are, will help create stability for students who move often. It will allow credits and learning ideas to be similar throughout Arizona as well as other states in the country. Finally, the Common Core State Standards will improve teacher partnership across the nation: “When teachers across the nation are using the same standards and common language, collaboration becomes more meaningful” (Core4all, 2010).  Professional growth at meetings, professional organizations and across systems will be more powerful than ever. When teachers share best practices, students will benefit significantly. This switch in how students learn will tremendously help the public schools. It will help prepare all students more for college courses.

Common Core Standards in Arizona, as well as many other states will change the way our country is taught. We will no longer look at ourselves as “the less intelligent country.” Implementing these standards will hopefully allow Arizona students, as well as all of the country, to compare themselves to other leading educational countries. Having these more rigorous criterions will prepare our students for their future career and the work force.

 References

Achieve Inc. (2013). About parcc. Retrieved from http://www.parcconline.org/about-parcc

Hrabluk, K. (2012). [Video Tape Recording]. Arizona common core standards., Retrieved from

http://www.azed.gov/azcommoncore/

Top 3 benefits of common core state standards. (2010, October 01). Retrieved from

http://core4all.wordpress.com/2010/10/01/top-3-benefits-of-the-common-core-state-standards-and-a-thank-you/

Trevizo, E. (2013, January 07). Common core funds lacking. The Arizona Republic. Retrieved

from azcentral.com

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School Sports: A Benefit to Society

April 30, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Athletics, Public Education Programs

Everyday, millions of kids come home from their classes in anticipation of playing their favorite sport later that afternoon. It is estimated that “30 million to 40 million children get involved in organized sports in the course of a year” (Wilson, 2011, para. 1) according to Kimberly Wilson, a writer for Livestrong. But how many of those students participate in club sports versus school sports? Club sports are the right fit for millions of kids but certainly not all; in a time when club sports cost more, do not promote community, and do nothing to help students in school, public schools do a service to their communities by providing school sports.

Public schools benefit student-athletes everywhere by providing a significantly cheaper alternative to club sports. When budgets tighten, every dollar counts. Fortunately, school sports do not cost nearly as much as their club counter parts. According to Bob Rohwer (1994), a prep sports editor for the Los Angeles Times, club sports cost around $2,000 per year (Rohwer, para. 4); whereas, only some schools charge any fees to participate in their sports programs. Mary Masson (2012), with the University of Michigan Health System, says that only “61 percent of children playing middle or high school sports were charged a pay-to-play fee. The average fee was $93, according to the poll respondents” (Masson, para. 3). Even though school budgets are tighter than ever, they still find a way to provide school sports at an affordable price. Without that opportunity, families would be forced to funnel their money into a system that charges more than 20 times as much as they are currently paying. Worse yet, many students would be denied the opportunity to play any sports due to their financial situation. School sports are not always perfect, but they do offer considerable benefits at a reasonable price.

Unlike club teams, public schools promote community involvement through their athletic programs. For generations, kids have grown up playing in their town little leagues and then moving on to their local high school team to compete against rival towns. As Unigo (2012), a college resource guide, points out, when an individual play on his high school sports team, “[he] will participate against other communities and enjoy the sporting rivalries that have developed over numerous generations” (Unigo, 2012). People from all over the community come to local rivalry games and bond over a mutual desire to beat the other team. However, club teams do not bring communities closer together. Instead of playing for their high school, many kids who participate in club sports “miss out on playing with their friends; they miss out on the school experience and the status that goes with that” (as cited in Jayne, 2012, para. 15) according to Jon Eagle, Camas High School football coach. Although club sports draw kids away from their communities, public schools help bring them back by offering school sports.

In addition to promoting community involvement and charging less than club sports, school sports assist students academically. Students who participate in high school sports usually perform better than their non-athletic counterparts. Angela Lumpkin and Judy Favor (2009), professors at the University of Kansas and Baker University respectively, conducted a study that measured the academic success of student-athletes in comparison with that of non-athletes. They found that “athletes earned higher grades, graduated at a higher rate, were much less likely to drop out of school, and scored higher on state assessments than non-athletes” (Lumpkin & Favor). This academic achievement is caused overwhelmingly by the academic eligibility requirements that are in place for high school athletes. In 1984, when Texas schools introduced academic standards that athletes had to achieve, many students were declared ineligible. After only two years, “the percentage of students who were declared ineligible was the same as before the rule was enacted” (Bukowski, para. 2) as stated by Dr. Bruce J. Bukowski, a writer for The Sport Journal. Thus, academic eligibility requirements do not work to exclude students from participating; instead, they help students perform better in school. But why is this? Why do students get better grades when they are involved in an activity that takes time away from studying? The reason is the incentive that sports offer struggling students—if they do well in school, they are allowed to play sports. Thus, they work harder in school in order to get a chance to participate. As Adekemi Oguntala (2010), MD – Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, points out, “the sport is the incentive, but graduating with grades that meet the minimum are the real goal” (Oguntala, para. 2). If parents want their kids to succeed academically, school sports serve as an excellent incentive to encourage them to work harder.

School sports may help students achieve in the classroom, as well as in the gym, but their club equivalents do nothing to encourage kids to better themselves academically. Often times, the only eligibility requirement for club teams is based on age. Students are allowed to participate in club sports even if they are failing classes, as long as their parents give permission. In a survey discussing the pros and cons of school and club sports, Elena Brownell, a volleyball player at Cedar Springs High School, listed eligibility requirements for school sports as a reason to turn to club sports  for some athletes (as cited in Wight, para. 7). Although club teams put emphasis on hard work, it is focused exclusively on the playbook, never on the textbook.

Some may argue that school sports are not nearly as useful as club sports because they do not provide the same level of           competition. However, that is the wrong way to look at it. An athlete who comes from a club team where he is just one great player among many great players will never stand out. When college recruiters see him play in club tournaments, he will not make an impression because there is nothing special about him; as Wichita Heights girls’ soccer coach, Steve Parks (2011), explains, great players “are not always looked upon to be the game changer because there are so many other possibilities out there.  If an elite player is the best offensive threat on her high school team, then her game has to change” (as cited in Joanna, para. 8). Furthermore, college recruiters will be able to see a skilled player stand out not only for her athletic ability but also for her skill in leading a team. Even though an athlete might face tougher competition in a club sports league, a high school team might be the best opportunity for her to showcase her talent.

School sports are a benefit to society because they are provided at a reasonable price, involve the community, and contribute to the academic achievement of student-athletes. Even if school sports cannot provide all of the advantages that club sports offer, they provide much more important benefits; school sports help to give students everywhere the tools necessary to succeed: a sense of belonging and a well-rounded education. If sports were eliminated from schools, the effects could be devastating—students would be left without an affordable option to pursue their dreams. It is up to us to make sure that the sports, themselves, are not cut.

References

Bukowski, B.J. (n.d.). A comparison of academic athletic eligibility in interscholastic sports in      american high schools. The Sport Journal. Retrieved from http://www.thesportjournal.org/article/comparison-academic-athletic-eligibility-interscholastic-sports-american-high-schools

Jayne, G. (2012 May 20). Jayne: Battle between club, high school sports continues. The  Columbian. Retrieved from http://www.columbian.com/news/2012/may/20/battle-between-club-high-school-sports-continues/

Joanna. (2011, April 11). High school sports vs. club sports. Varsity Kansas – The Blog. Retrieved from http://blogs.varsitykansas.com/blog/2011/04/11/high-school-sports-vs-club-sports/

Lumpkin, A., & Favor, J. (2009). Comparing the academic performance of high school athletes  and non-athletes in Kansas in 2008-2009. Retrieved from http://www.kshsaa.org/Public/PDF/AcademicPerformance.pdf

Masson, M. (2012, May 14). Pay-to-play sports keeping lower-income kids out of the game. U of  M Health. Retrieved from http://www.uofmhealth.org/news/mott-poll-school-sports-pay-to-play

Oguntala, A. (2010, December 13). Using sports as a carrot to help academic performance.  MomsTeam. Retrieved from http://www.momsteam.com/team-experts/sports-can-be-carrot-academic-success

Rohwer, B. (1994, February 2). Prep voices: Club sports provide polish, but at what cost? Los  Angeles Times. Retrieved from http://articles.latimes.com/1994-02-02/sports/sp-18109_1_club-sports

Unigo. (2012). 5 major benefits of playing high school sports. Unigo. Retrieved from http://www.unigo.com/articles/5_major_benefits_of_playing_high_school_sports/?taxonomyId=0

Wight, H. (n.d.) School vs. club sports: The students share pros and cons as athletes. Hawk Nation. Retrieved from http://cshshawknation.com/2013/02/21/school-vs-club-sports-the- students-share-pros-and-cons-as-athletes/

Wilson, K. (2011, August 11). Statistics on kids involved in sports. Livestrong. Retrieved from             http://www.livestrong.com/article/351762-statistics-on-kids-involved-in-sports/

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Public Education: The First Line of Defense

April 30, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Laws Affecting Public Education

The United States public school system was set up to prepare America’s youth for adulthood through compulsory education. Because of our public schools, Americans can expect a community of responsible citizens to emerge from each generation. Some dissenters cite the inefficiencies of public schools as argument for their abolishment; however, they neglect all of the unseen positives of a system that educates children regardless of financial circumstance. In a world where the impoverished turn to lawbreaking for survival, public education helps the community by reducing crime.

Many criminals are forced to resort to delinquency because they are under-qualified for a well-paying job. Caroline Wolf Harlow (2003), a statistician at the Bureau of Justice Statistics, estimates that high school dropouts make up nearly half of prison inmates, even though they constitute less than 20% of the overall population (p. 1). The director of the Center for Human Capital and Productivity, Lance Lochner, who researches the relationship between education and crime, can explain why the figures regarding dropouts in prison versus those in the population are so disproportional. He claims that “more educated individuals commit less crime because they have more human capital and can earn higher wages” (Lochner, 2004, p. 3). Lochner defines “human capital” as a person’s value in terms of ability, competency, knowledge, and personality. Intelligent people commit less crime because they have the human capital to get a good job that pays well. Thus, there is no need to steal to obtain food; they can buy it. Lochner implies that those who do break the law usually have a more difficult time getting a job to finance their needs because they do not have the level of intelligence needed.

More people would turn to crime to solve their financial hardships without public schools because they would go uneducated due to both access and expense. Nancy Kober (2007), a writer for the Center on Education Policy, wrote in her report “Why We Still Need Public Schools” that “public schools were established to make education universally available to all children, free of charge… [They] are accessible in all parts of the country, including areas where few or no private schools exist” (p. 7). The only way to guarantee that all children receive an education is to provide one free of charge; if the federal government did not provide a public option, kids living in poverty would likely never be given even an elementary education; it would be too expensive to afford. Thus, there would be more people turning to criminal acts each day just to make ends meet.

A public school system (to which everyone has access) may stunt the development of potential criminals, but our nation’s taxpayers must know exactly how crime affects the public. It is well known that crime is a negative aspect of any society; however, that economic toll may be higher than most expect. Between the cost to the victims and those to the public (incarceration, the judicial system, and crime prevention measures) criminal offenses reached nearly $200 billion in 2007 according to Kathryn McCollister, Michael French, and Hai Fang (2010, para. 2), professors at the University of Miami and University of  Colorado Denver. As a nation, if we could reduce crime, we would provide taxpayers emotional reassurance, in the form of safer streets and some much needed cash that would no longer be needed to handle criminals.

Crime certainly takes a place on our nation’s annual balance sheet, but Americans must understand how public education can change that amount. If we could increase graduation rates among high school seniors, then, there would be less crime, which, in turn, would save taxpayers money. In their study, “The Costs and Benefits of an Excellent Education for All of America’s Children,” Henry Levin, Clive Belfield, Peter Muennig, and Cecilia Rouse (2006) found that “the average saving per new high school graduate is $26,600” (p. 14) as seen in Table 1.

 

Table 1

Total Present Value Lifetime Cost-Savings from Reduced Criminal Activity

Male

Female

White

$30,200

$8,300

Black

$55,500

$8,600

Hispanic

$38,300

$8,300

Other

$30,200

$8,300

Average

$26,600

Note. The data on lifetime savings is adapted from “Total Present Value Lifetime Cost-Savings from Reduced Criminal Activity” by H. Levin, C. Belfield, P. Muennig, & C. Rouse, 2006, The Costs and Benefits of an Excellent Education for All of America’s Children, p. 14.

 

These savings are due to lower costs for incarceration and the criminal justice system; but these statistics do not reflect the additional revenue that would be collected from income tax or the savings from money spent on welfare programs. In determining the average savings per additional high school graduate, the professors accounted for the costs of new teachers, an expanded pre-school program, and even a 10% increase in teachers’ salaries; thus, the $26,600 in savings that they have predicted will not be dampened by the costs associated with raising graduation rates.

Among other benefits it brings us, public education helps reduce crime. Henry Levin and his colleagues argue the potential savings if we expand public education, but think of the reverse. What if we did not have a public school system? There would be untold sums of money spent each year on criminals who had been forced onto a path of lawlessness because they had no other option. How much money would we spend? We can only estimate such expenses because the costs associated with criminals who never materialize are hard to figure with absolute certainty. Regardless of their exact size, the cost of incarcerating an uneducated public would be substantially greater than that which we endure today. A public school provides more than just a cheaper alternative to private schooling; it is the first line of defense against crime.
References

Kober, N. (2007). Why we still need public schools: Public education for the common good.

Levin, H., Belfield, C., Muennig, P., & Rouse, C. (2006). Total Present Value Lifetime Cost-Savings from Reduced Criminal Activity. The Costs and Benefits of an Excellent Education for All of America’s Children, p. 14.

Levin, H., Belfield, C., Muennig, P., & Rouse, C. (2006, October). The costs and benefits of an excellent education for all of America’s children. Retrieved from http://www3.nd.edu/~jwarlick/documents/Levin_Belfield_Muennig_Rouse.pdf

Lochner, L. (2004, May). Education, Work, and Crime: A Human Capital Approach. Retrieved from http://www.nber.org/papers/w10478.pdf?new_window=1

McCollister, K., French, M., & Fang, H. (2010, January 13). The cost of crime to society: New crime-specific estimates for policy and program evaluation. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2835847/

United States. U.S. Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2003). Education and correctional populations. Caroline Wolf Harlow. Retrieved on 26 February 2013 from http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/content/pub/pdf/ecp.pdf

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The Logic of it All

April 30, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Public Vs. Private, School Structure

 

Many believe that public education is not as challenging as private education, but is this really true; or is there more that      meets the eye? It is not often published that public schools offer more opportunities for students to bond with all other ethnic groups and races, but they also offer a wider variety of AP college prep classes and a better communal society that is cheaper than private schooling.

When looking at the public school system, one has to keep in mind that public schools are completely free. The majority of society does not acknowledge that  paying for private school is a waste of time, energy, and money. According to Mr. Doug Park a city councilman : “ Parents need to realize that a voucher will not pay the full cost of a private school. I have contacted several private schools and have learned that most schools charge $6,000 or more per year” (Doug Park). Parents still send their children to private schools, and for what? The illustration below, shows a bar graph comparing public and private schools cost as a child grows up.

carson graph

Figure 1. Comparison of Private and Public school costs. Adapted from “ Planning For The Cost Of Higher Education,” © 2011 McGraw-Hill Financial Communications.

As one may determine from the graph above, this would be the annual cost per child and as seen above it can cost up to three times more than public education.

Today, schooling depends on the opportunities that the students are given, and the life skills that they are taught that will later be needed. Public schools are better adapted to handle an array of student ethnicities, races, and religions. This is why public schools are so much better at teaching all students. In reality private schools are given higher scores, even though their scores are not actually available to the public. However, one has to realize that their positive media is only because of the fact that they are selective in the process by which students get in. In some cases the larger wallet student is accepted before the more talented one. With the perspective of acceptance, it is also not required that students with disabilities have an equal opportunity to get accepted to private schooling. The public schools accommodate those with special needs, which further proves why they are better than their private counterparts as stated in “The American Imperative”:

Private schools, by contrast, are not legally bound to provide equality in     admitting or retaining students. Indeed, it is only the public schools that have the      legal obligation to accept many students with special needs. Under federal civil      rights laws, public schools must provide educational and related services to meet               the needs of children with disabilities. Likewise, they must meet the educational          needs of students who do not speak English or whose proficiency in English is       limited. (American Imperative).

What really matters in the end to private schools, is the money and that they can be as selective as they want in order to increase school rating. This is why public has more advantages.

So as parents, educators, and students we need to break the barrier that private schooling is better than that of public schools. Since public institutions allow everyone an equal opportunity to education and the ability to work at higher standard, why would parents not want to send their children there? Also, they have a staff that is more qualified to meet individuals needs. Parents have a job to understand that private schooling is not made to accommodate everyone, while public education is. Teachers who have learned to accommodate all different students, are better trained than those tailored just to gifted and selected students. The students are only as good as the teachers teaching them. Ultimately, it comes down to which can offer a better, broader, cheaper education. In the long run public institutions are able to provide the best education.

 

References:

“An American imperative: Public education.” Center for Public Education. N.p., n.d.         Web. 4 Feb. 2013. http://www.centerforpubliceducation.org/Main-Menu/Public-          education/An-American-imperative-Public-education-.

Figure 1. “Planning for the Cost of Higher Education.” Axa Equitable. McGraw-Hill         Financial , n.d. Web. 4 Feb. 2013.

Park, Doug. “Advantages of a Public Education.” Smart Voter by the League of Women Voters. Comprehensive, Nonpartisan Election Information. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Feb.    2013. <http://www.smartvoter.org/2000/11/07/ca/sac/vote/park_d/paper.html

 

 

 

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Advantages Beyond the Classroom

April 30, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Public Education Programs

Parents often ask themselves what they can do to help ensure their child’s success in school. The answer is simple: extracurricular activities. Parents from three different continents all agreed on one thing, “activities are important for children’s success” (Fatigante, 2010). Out of school activities help ensure a student will have a positive social experience, higher GPA, and community involvement.

Despite their background, most students enjoy an enhanced social life when they participate in additional activities. Studies show that teenagers learn how to build solid relationship skills through school activities. According to Joy Burgess, an expert on child development, students need to “learn how to appropriately act in social situations and these activities give them a chance outside of school to do this” (Burgess, 2009). Furthermore, clubs help make new friends. A website devoted to teen’s health states that, participating in organizations “may bring [teens] in contact with people [they] did not know who share [their] interests and curiosity” (Dowshen, 2010). A club is sponsored by the school as a method of encouraging student engagement. Associations allow students to collaborate with others who share similar interests, making kids feel less isolated in school.  Meeting new people leads to less boredom on the weekends and more meaning to daily routines.

Clubs and sports have been shown to improve performance in school. Extracurricular activities have been proven to increase GPA through an increase in “academic self-concept, time spent on school work, and through time management” (Bush, 2003). When students are involved in an out of school activity, they meet new friends which, leads to a higher self esteem. With a high morale, pupils are more driven in scholastic matters. Most sports require athletes to maintain a certain grade point average. No one wants to sit out, especially because of grades. This leads to an increased amount of time devoted to school work.

brandon graph

Figure 1. Note: Extracurricular vs. GPA. Adapted from “Stat Crunch” in 2009. Retrieved from http://www.statcrunch.com/5.0/viewreport.php?reportid=23875. Adapted with permission.

The chart above shows the positive correlation between the hours involved in out of school activities and the increase in GPA. A difference of just ten hours can mean the difference between a 3.6 and a 2.6 GPA. Therefore, extracurricular activities have a profound influence in a student’s performance in the classroom.

Extracurricular activities have larger implications than just school. Many clubs require community service, or include service projects. According to a website that focuses on analyzing what a quality education is composed of, community involvement through clubs is a significant component that often ends up being over looked (Quality Education 203, 2013). Community service can be extremely personally rewarding. Volunteer work often leaves a person with a sense of satisfaction. Involvement in the community may also lead to the formation of new friendships. Community involvement not only brings a sense of fulfillment but also a sense of connectivity.

In conclusion, involvement in extracurricular activities has many unseen advantages. Friends lay the ground work for a positive educational experience, and clubs allow you to make a variety of friends. The more activities someone has on his or her plate, the more improvement there is on report cards. Clubs even encourage members to become more involved in their community. Turns out biting off more than you can chew is beneficial in the long run.

 

 

References

Burgess, J. (2009). Extracurricular School Activities and the Benefits. Retrieved April 11, 2013, from http://education.more4kids.info/168/extracurricular-school-activities/

Bush, J. M. (2003). Retrieved April 11, 2013, from digitalcommons.iwu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1006&context=psych_honproj

Dowshen, S. (2010). Extracurricular Activities. Retrieved April 11, 2013, from http://kidshealth.org/teen/school_jobs/school/involved_school.html#

Fatigante, M. (2010). Retrieved April 13, 2013, from http://celf.ucla.edu/2010_conference_articles/Kremer-Sadlik_et_al_2010.pdf

Quality Education 203 (2013). The Benefits of Extracurricular Activities. Retrieved April 11, 2013, from http://www.qualityeducation203.org/cms/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=69:the-benefits-of-extracurricular-activities

Stat Crunch (2009). Extra-curricular activity vs. GPA [graph]. Retrieved from http://www.statcrunch.com/5.0/viewreport.php?reportid=23875

 

 

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Lunch for All

April 30, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Health

If there were a way to help feed hungry children who cannot afford food, how many people would really attempt to assist? Governor Peter Shumlin aims to address this issue in the public schools of Vermont. His ideal bill will offer free meals to students who already qualify for receiving reduced meals at school. Although meals for these students have already been reduced, Morrisville food service director, Jeff Brynn, elaborates on the family struggles to purchase school meals: “It seems as though 40 cents is not a lot to charge but for many of our students it proves to be enough for them not to eat” (Freese 2013). So, with the placement of Governor Shumlin’s proposed bill, Vermont will be the first state to offer free meals to eligible students. A change to lunch costs in public schools will benefit the education and health of students across the nation.

Along with Gov. Shumlin’s bill to make all school meals free for participating students, the state of Vermont has already passed a similar bill in 2008. The bill established that students currently receiving reduced-price meals may receive free breakfast. Therefore, the bill may prove to be promising because of the 2008 bill’s success. It has been recorded that less students have applied for reduced-price school meals, which, will result in less funding from the state. Alicia Freese states that Governor Shumlin’s bill is greatly encouraged by hunger relief organizations: “Hunger Free Vermont has been advocating for the change for three years” (Freese 2013). Currently, Gov. Shumlin’s bill has a high chance of getting his bill passed in Vermont; hopefully, the first public schools to implement this bill will demonstrate a positive outcome from students.

Adding a meal to students’ days can encourage them to try harder in school and at home. A student’s involvement can greatly be influenced by the presence of food. Think about how weak one feels after just one day without food; some children do it every day. It is people like Governor Shumlin and organizations like Hungry Free Vermont that are trying to prevent such events from happening within the state’s public schools. With Gov. Shumlin’s bill, students can eat a nutritious meal without any cost to themselves or their families. There is not much sacrifice to the school or meal providers, and there is nothing but gain to the ones who receive the generous offer of the bill. If states across the nation enforced a bill like Gov. Shumlin’s, the youth hunger rate would decrease and student involvement could very well increase.

 

 

Reference

Freese, Alicia. Advocates make their case for school lunch bill. VT Digger, Vermont Journalism

Trust. 2013

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The Pros and Cons of Common Core Standards

April 30, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Common Core, School Structure

 

Every year we receive reports from various firms saying that the U.S is trailing behind countries like Sweden and South Korea in terms of test scores, and every year we ask the question: What can we do to change this? The first step is by looking at what those countries have that we do not. All of these countries share, among other things, a national curriculum- something that has been missing in the U.S. until now. Starting in 2010, the Obama administration has been working on getting the Common Core standards accepted by all 50 states. Currently only five states have yet to adopt these standards (Heinz, 2012). However, the fact remains, Common Core Standards are what our public schools need.

A nationwide curriculum would certainly have its perks. Students would all learn with the same set of standards. That would mean students from one state would not be behind those from another state. It would help immensely when preparing students for college as well, since all students would be learning the same set of standards at approximately the same time. More emphasis would also be placed on difficult concepts, like fractions. Hailey Heinz, a writer for the Albuquerque News, interviewed some teachers and asked them their opinions about the Common Core standards: “Education Secretary-designate Hanna Skandera said the Common Core standards emphasize critical thinking and mastery of key topics, rather than a shallow understanding of many topics. ‘Part of the emphasis in Common Core is the ability for students to think critically and process,’ Skandera said. ‘It’s moving beyond the first level of thinking to higher levels of thinking’” (Heinz, 2012). Teaching students to think through their problems rather than just memorizing the steps would have merit. Students would be able to think through more difficult problems, not only on tests, but in life. Critical thinking would also help students wrap their heads around more abstract concepts. Linda Sink, the Albuquerque schools chief academic officer says: “through research, we found that students didn’t have a good understanding of place value, and from that misunderstanding, a lot things went wrong from there on, and then we have these people failing algebra” (Heinz, 2012). Not failing algebra would definitely help students who otherwise struggle in school. Every school, especially public schools would love to have all their students excel, something Common Core would help.

However, with all these obvious benefits, why would five states want to hold out? Chester E. Finn Jr., from Education Next, theorizes that these states’ apprehension to the new standards is not just a form of protest at the loss of an individual set of school standards but rather rooted in six major arguments. These arguments range from economic worries, to educational worries, to doubts that the federal government may be over reaching itself with these new standards. Finn provides us with a brief description of these concerns:

First, a few earnest critics are convinced that the standards are substantively flawed…Second, the Common Core will be difficult and expensive to implement… Third, the Common Core won’t make any difference in student achievement…Fourth, states have done as well, or better, on their own, and switching over to the Common Core will just mess them up…Fifth, “national” is not the right way to do anything in American education…Sixth, and closely related to the blurring of national with federal is the expectation that Uncle Sam won’t be able to keep his hands off the Common Core (Finn Jr., 2012).

Finn postulates that states main complaints are that the standards will not actually help students, that they will be too expensive to implement, and that the government will interfere with the standards too much. The government certainly has shown that it is willing to interfere in public education, most recently with the no child left behind policies enacted by the Bush administration, which withheld federal funding from schools that had subpar performance. The cost is also very prohibitive; teachers will need to be trained, and entire curriculums will have to be overhauled. Finally, if students are already failing school, will introducing abstract concepts really help them? If a student is already failing math, would teaching him the abstract reasoning that allows us to add and subtract fractions really help them out in algebra? Many people would say no. If a student just does not “get” algebra, how would teaching them even more advanced concepts further their knowledge?

While the opposition raises good points, Common Core Standards really are what our public schools need to help our students. America has established itself as one of the leaders of the world community. Without educated students rising to take the place of their retiring parents, how can America continue to lead the world? Math and science are huge subject areas that are used in a myriad of fields including, but not limited to: engineering, medicine, and finance. Without educated men and women in those fields the USA risks losing its hard earned reputation for innovation to another country. Is that really what we should allow to happen to what was once the greatest country in the world?

 

 

 

References

Finn Jr., C. (2012, May 03). The war against the common core. Retrieved from http://educationnext.org/the-war-against-the-common-core/

Heinz, H. (2012, April 09). Common core standards usher in teaching reforms. ABQ Journal. Retrieved from http://www.abqjournal.com/main/2012/04/09/news/common-core-standards-usher-in-teaching-reforms.html

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The Common Core Standards and How They Relate to Math

April 30, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Common Core, School Structure

Perhaps you have heard about the Obama Administration’s new initiative: a set of new nationwide education standards. However, how much do you actually know about these standards? It is true that they will be universal, but what will they teach? Will they make our students better at math and science? Will these new standards fall short of their goals and ultimately be abandoned? While only time will tell what the future holds for the Common Core Standards, we can see what they will do to our education, and specifically: math.

The first part about the standards is the goals they set; these standards were put in place to achieve certain goals in education, not just to nationalize it. The goals are as follows:

1 Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them…2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively…3 Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others…4 Model with mathematics…5 Use appropriate tools strategically…6 Attend to precision…7 Look for and make use of structure…8   Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning (“Common core standards,” 2012).

These goals are certainly quite high reaching. They call on students to know not only how to solve problems, but also to know why they are using the tools they are learning about. They ask students to consult graphs and other models to make sense of their problems, and to understand the underlying principles in these problems. So, how do they intend to follow through with these goals? These goals will be implemented throughout several levels of schooling. Kindergartners, for example, will learn to describe and compare traits, to identify shapes, to use the numbers 11-19 as a basis to understanding place values, and to understand that addition is putting together and subtraction is taking away from (“Common core standards,” 2012). But, the Kindergartners are not the only ones with such high expectations. The Department of Education released a chart detailing the standards that should be achieved in both addition and subtraction.

Addition and Subtraction Situations

 anshu graph 1

Note. Adapted from “Common core standards for mathematics.” 2012. Department of Education. Adapted with permission.

The standards set by this table may seem simplistic, but they would seem unconquerable for a Kindergartner, or even a first grader. The goal, however, is laudable, to teach students from a young age how to conceptualize the abstract principles which work in tandem to make math work. Teaching these abstract principles to students would benefit them immensely as they moved on to high order mathematics.

Higher order mathematics are difficult for most students to wrap their heads around, with terms like derivative, matrix, and trigonometry being thrown around freely. However, with clear goals, and ample build up these cryptic terms can be brought down to size. By learning the fundamental concepts behind these higher order mathematics, the students will be able to receive the benefits not only in school, but also beyond it. Whole fields of jobs make extensive use of these esoteric calculations, and by achieving a mastery over difficult subjects like physics, and chemistry students are opening up new opportunities for themselves down the road. All of this is possible with the new Common Core Standards.

 

 

References

Department of Education, Common Core State Standards Initiative. (2012). Common core standards for mathematics. Retrieved from website: http://www.corestandards.org/assets/CCSSI_Math Standards.pdf

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Street Smarts

April 30, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Public Vs. Private, School Structure

When only the fundamental statistics are examined, one of the most glaring differences between public and private schools is the size of enrollment.  On average, private schools possess a much lower student population due to the large price tag attached to them.  Many families cannot afford to buy their child such a costly education, especially when public schools offer basically the same knowledge for no cost.  This small difference between private and public schools has much larger repercussions than campus and class sizes.  In addition, private schools lack involvement in extracurricular activities, possess limited social interaction, have fewer opportunities for elective classes, and shelter students from diversity and situations common in the larger public schools.

While private schools have been advertised to receive better scores on national test averages, they also have several deterrents that discourage enrollment.  The most obvious of these is price, as the average tuition cost for American private schools is between eight and nine thousand dollars (Council for American Public Education, 2013).  This added cost to the price of living is too much for many households with an income at or below the average income.  Also, many private schools are religiously affiliated, further narrowing the number of families who are interested.

Table 1

Enrollment in Elementary and Secondary Schools by Control and Level of Institution

alex cook graph 1

Note. The data on School Enrollment is adapted from “Enrollment in Elementary and Secondary Schools by Control and Level of Institution” by the NationalCenter for education Statistics, 2009, Fast Facts, par 4.

As shown in Table 1, the cost restraint is quite effective, as only about 10% of students are currently enrolled in private schools, with the number increasing at a very slow rate.  Overall, the average enrollment in each private high school is half that of average public schools in the same area (Chen, 2007, par. 6).  Usually, smaller class sizes are also associated with private schools, but this is not necessarily a benefit.

In their high school careers, a majority of students take part in extracurricular activities; however, the choices at private schools are limited.  With less students and teachers, only some of the normal sports and clubs can be offered at private schools.  Apparently, the lack of participation can also affect academic performance.

Table 2

Percentage of public school seniors reporting selected indicators of school success by participation and nonparticipation in extracurricular activities

alex cook graph 2Note. The data on Senior Success is adapted from “Percentage of public school seniors reporting selected indicators of school success by participation and nonparticipation in extracurricular activities” by the NationalCenter for education Statistics, 1995, Extracurricular Participation, par 3.

Based on Table 2, extracurricular activities are associated with substantial benefits in school attendance, as well as grade point average and future education achievement.  This is because after school activities teach important life lessons; sports, for example, teach dedication and punctuality.  Another advantage of possessing multiple commitments is to learn how to balance a busy schedule, a valuable skill that will help young adults later in life.

A downside to private schools is the lack of diversity in choices and situations.  With fewer students, there is not a large need for teachers.  This means that there is a “less diverse choice in subjects,” and there are fewer specialized courses (Driver, par. 5).  In addition, private schools are usually the preferred choice of the privileged members of society.  This lack of diversity and cultural interaction causes the students to “sometimes be too sheltered from the real world” (Driver, par. 5).  The consequences of associating oneself with such a specific group is that social and situational skills are less likely to be developed, which is a disadvantage in a capitalist society such as in the United States.

Learning social skills, such as how to interact with friends and foes, and building a resume with extracurricular activities are major parts of high school which are not focused on as much as academics.  Without a large student body to maintain interest and diversity in school activities and communication, these valuable elements die out, especially in private schools.  These components are especially helpful later in life, for tasks such as preparing for a successful job interview or cooperating with co-workers.  With a balance of activities and academics, a situation found most commonly in public schools, students learn to be “street smart” as well as acquire the knowledge to help them in their careers.

 

 References

Chen, Grace. (2007). Public School vs. Private School.  Retrieved from http://www.publicschoolreview.com/articles/5

Council for American Public Education. (2013). Facts and Studies. Retrieved from http://www.capenet.org/facts.html

Driver, Christi. Public vs. Private Schools. Retrieved from http://www.piedmontparent.com/articlemain.php?Public-vs.-Private-Schools-1337

NationalCenter for Education Statistics. (1995). Extracurricular Participation and Student Engagement. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs95/web/95741.asp

NationalCenter for Education Statistics. (2009). Fast Facts. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/display.asp?id=65

 

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A+ Education

April 30, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Reforms in Public Schools, School Structure

 

It is the goal of every hardworking student to receive an A+ on his or her report card.  After striving for an entire semester, the feeling of accomplishment is more than anyone could ever ask for.  But what if an entire school could feel this way?  The Arizona Educational Foundation provides a comprehensive school assessment entitled The A+ School of Excellence™ Program.  This program is based on three criteria:  identifying and giving recognition to outstanding schools, making available key information of school effectiveness, and assisting communication and sharing practices between the best schools. For the schools that meet these three criteria, it is an honor to win such a prestigious award.  The Arizona Education Foundation has found a way to improve schools statewide by initiating a competition for an A+ on their report cards.

The application process for an A+ school takes the majority of the school year.  Applications are made available in August and are due in mid-January.  Schools that are qualified are selected and notified in early February; between late February and mid-April site visits are conducted.  In late April, the winners are announced.  Selection panels include principals, teachers, and community leaders.  Although the process may be stressful at times, the prize is certainly worth it:

Each school receives $500 and a banner designating it as an A+ School of Excellence™. All staff and faculty at awarded schools are eligible for partial scholarships from Argosy University/Phoenix: 20% for a Master’s degree and 15% for both Undergraduate and Doctoral degrees. (Arizona Educational Foundation 2013)

Recognition also provides a great experience for the community of the school.  From the award’s beginning, the Arizona Educational Foundation has noticed that acknowledgement of a school’s achievements increases students’ and parents’ pride.  It also re-energizes the staff, students, and parents.  Awards such as this can help schools gain the outside support they need from the community in order to endorse school programs.

Once a school is considered A+, it is granted the title for three years.  After this time, the title expires; if the school wants to uphold its title, it must reapply.  Within the past year alone, twenty-one schools were presented with A+ honors.  One such school was Kyrene Altadeña Middle School.  Principal Nancy Corner accepted the award proudly and stated:  “Receiving the A+ School of Excellence Award from the Arizona Educational Foundation is such an honor and appreciated recognition for what community is able to accomplish!” (Corner, N. 7 (10). 1.)  There are currently sixty-six A+ schools statewide, and the number increases each year as more and more schools apply.  This includes local high schools such as Desert Vista (accepted in 2011) and Mountain Pointe (accepted in 2010.)  Unfortunately, due to the three year limit, the number does fluctuate.  However, this is understandable, as competition is necessary for a program like this one to succeed.

Earning straight As is hard enough for one student, but earning straight As for an entire school is an even more challenging task to accomplish.  However, for the sixty-six schools currently featured as A+ Schools, the task was most certainly attainable.  Thanks to the Arizona Educational Foundation, every student statewide has the chance to earn an A+ on his or her report card.

 

References

 (2013). A+ School of Excellence. Arizona Educational Foundation. http://azedfoundation.org/programs/a-school-of-excellence-program/

Corner, N. (01 June 2012). Panther Post News. 7(10). 1.

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Get Physical Education Off of the Sidelines

April 30, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Athletics, Health, Public Education Programs

 

In today’s society, school can be compared to a game. However, instead of everyone having equal playing time, only the core academic classes are allowed to play. This relates to schools today because with the pressures of students to do well and improve their scores on standardized tests, physical education has been stuck on the sidelines. Physical education in schools is more important than people perceive it to be, because it is the only opportunity for many children in America to engage in any form of physical activity. As children grow up less active, there is a growing problem of obesity and other various health problems. Schools have the responsibility to educate children not only in academics, but also on how to live a healthy and active lifestyle. Contrary to popular belief, implementing more physical education classes in public schools would not only benefit children physically, but will also help students academically in the long run.

Among today’s youth, there is an overweight and obesity epidemic. The Centers for Disease Controls and Preventions explains that children are no longer playing outside after school and eating unreasonable, unhealthy portion sizes. Therefore, children are more overweight than ever before: “The percentage of children aged 6–11 years in the United States who were obese increased from 7% in 1980 to nearly 18% in 2010. Similarly, the percentage of adolescents aged 12–19 years who were obese increased from 5% to 18% over the same period” (Adolescent and School). This is constantly a growing problem, and public schools need to take action to help stop this increase in unhealthy lifestyles. Weight problems are a major issue because it causes great damages to one’s body. Kathy Speregen, from the University of Michigan, explains how being overweight over time will have various negative effects on the body: “Not only do weight problems lead to high blood pressure, high cholesterol, joint problems, asthma, anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, and diabetes, but children who are overweight miss as much as four times as much school as children of normal weight” (Speregen). If physical education were implemented into public schools, students would be healthier overall. Being physically active improves circulation, increases blood flow to the brain, and raises endorphin levels which will help lower a student’s stress and also improve his mood. All of these will have a major impact on students now and in their future lives.

As the obesity rate is growing in America, many schools have begun to undertake significant reforms. Public schools are beginning to implement new health and physical education classes not only to help prevent illnesses caused by obesity, but also to promote wellness overall. Grace Chen, from The Public School Review, gives one example of a school reform that takes place in North Carolina: “Public schools across the state are implementing mandatory physical education and recess programs to combat the many health issues plaguing young students” (Chen, 2008). These schools are now making physical education and health class part of the mandatory curriculum in elementary and middle schools. Other schools should follow North Carolina’s example because they have taken the first step in improving the lives of this generation’s children, by giving them the necessary tools to begin to live a healthier and better lifestyle.

In recent years, physical education classes have been pushed aside in order to make more room for core academic classes. Providing more physical education courses not only has the obvious physical and health benefits, but it also has a great impact on a student’s performance in school. One reason that physical education has become less important is because the main focus of schools is for children to do well on tests, but their actual focus should be to prepare children for life in American society. Many children do not participate in physical activity or eat healthy at home, so it is necessary for public schools to teach children how to live an active lifestyle. Al Baker, from The New York Times, explains how budget cuts also play a role in the decline of physical education: “Principals most frequently blame budget cuts, and in New York, they also cite pressures to devote resources to test preparation, and what one union leader called a lack of interest from the department headquarters” (Baker, 2012). These budget cuts have led schools to cut back on spending for physical education because it is thought not to be as important as the necessary academic classes.

Many people believe that schools need to focus solely on academics for a student to perform well academically, but physical education actually leads to an increase in academic performance. When students are physically active, they are less likely to miss school and participate in risky behaviors, unlike their unhealthy counterparts. Also, being active can help concentration; thereby making students perform better on tests: “Several studies have stated that providing increased time for physical activity can lead to better concentration, reduced disruptive behaviors and higher test scores in reading, math and writing” (Speregen). A study in France proved that when the schools increased their physical activity to eight hours a week and reduced the time devoted to academic subjects, the students became physically and psychologically healthier and actually had an increase in academic performance (Speregen). Many schools believe that they need to make students be in more academic classes in order for them to perform better on tests, but this is not true. With the utilization of physical education, students will actually end up performing better on tests.

With the problem of obesity growing among America’s children, it is necessary for physical education to be provided in all public schools across the nation. The Huffington Post looks at Bryan McCullick’s study that shows that barely any schools fulfill the daily requirements for physical activity: “Only six states nationwide require the recommended 150 minutes of elementary school-based physical education, according to a study by University of Georgia kinesiology professor Bryan McCullick” (Physical Education Programs, 2012). Without the opportunity for students to participate in physical activity at school, obesity will continue to be a growing issue among children. Schools have made their primary focus on academics, but many studies have proved that physical education greatly increases a student’s academic performance. Also, with successful health and physical education programs, children will learn how to adopt an active lifestyle and will grow up healthier. The health of America’s future generations are at stake, and without the involvement of public schools the situation will continue to grow worse. Without the participation of physical education, America will most likely lose the game. Public schools need to pull physical education off the sidelines as soon as possible and throw it back into the game in order to win this battle of obesity.

 

References

Adolescent and school health . (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/obesity/facts.htm

Baker , A. (n.d.). Despite obesity concerns, gym classes are cut . (2012). New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/11/education/even-as-schools-battle-obesity-physical-education-is-sidelined.html?pagewanted=all&_r=1&

Chen, G. (2008, Septe 12). Physical education reform in public schools. Retrieved from http://www.publicschoolreview.com/articles/45

Physical education programs in school not enough to beat obesity in most states: Study. (2012, August 9). Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/07/09/study-school-based-physic_n_1659579.html

Speregen, K. (n.d.). Physical education in america’s public schools. Retrieved from http://sitemaker.umich.edu/356.speregen/home

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Developing Developers

April 30, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Public Education Programs

 

It is quite odd for students to think that their teachers were actually former students themselves. What may be even more odd is that those same teachers are still learning new teaching skills every day. This may come as a shock to many students, but it is true. There are a plethora of programs set up to aim directly for the further advancement of teachers. With the advancement of teachers, it is easier to set higher standards for both teachers and students. This will help students obtain scholarships and give them the chance to go to college.

There are an excess of ways that teachers are taught to be a better teacher. What are some of the ways that public schools help their teachers improve? At Desert Vista High School teachers have Professional Learning Communities (PLC) meetings every other Wednesday with their department coworkers. Todd Ford, the PE Department head at Desert Vista, explains why these meetings are extremely beneficial:

The meetings are beneficial because you can pick people’s brains and see how they teach the subject. It opens your eyes to new ways to do things. In PE it is probably a little different but those developmental meetings are very helpful for being a better teacher. It’s something that private schools do not really focus on. (Ford, 2013)

This is a great way for teachers to learn about their coworkers and try new techniques that they may have never thought about before. With these programs in place, the teachers can make adjustments every other week to ensure that they are constantly improving. Development should be something all teachers strive for in order to give their students the best chance to be successful.

Now, just because a teacher received his or her degree does not mean he/she is done learning. A great teacher is always looking for new ways to get better at what he/she does. In order to be great, there cannot be any decline. There has to be a constant uphill battle to get better. No matter what it takes to improve students in every area of their education. Joan McRobbie, an author, highlights some key points in her analysis of teacher development: “To help practicing teachers improve and become increasingly expert over the course of their careers, we must start by recognizing that teaching is a lifelong journey of learning rather than a final destination of “knowing” how to teach. Our policies must then ensure that teachers have the support needed to make this journey” (McRobbie, 2000). When programs are in place, it gives the teachers an opportunity to expand their knowledge and be supported by their schools. This is where programs like PLCs come in handy. Such programs are not very complex and cost little, if any money. The benefits are so substantial that they must be passed on.

While the teachers work to improve themselves, their efforts should directly correlate with students’ achievement. In a professional developmental plan formed by Deborah Mahaffey, Kathryn Lind, and Laurie Derse, they share some areas where students could improve based on data the school district has created: “Improving students’ reading and writing achievement is one of my school’s goals based upon our school-wide student achievement data” (Professional Development Plan). When teachers increase their standards, in reaction students will increase their standards. It is almost like a domino effect, when a teacher increases his/her standards; the students are bound to go through the same exact process by increasing their knowledge.

In the graph presented below, the results show that, increasing the education of teachers will cause the students to do much better in school. All the results show that by developing the teachers’ education, the students gain a better education and a higher school budget. Basically, the schools are getting the most for their money by increasing teacher improvement.

Effects of Educational Investments:

Size of Increase in Student Achievement for Every $500 Spent on:

graph06

Chart 1

Note. Achievement gains were calculated as standard deviation units on a range of achievement in the 60 studies reviewed. Source: Greenwald, R., Hedges, L. V., & Laine, R. D. (1966). The effect of school resources on student achievement. Review of Education Research, 66(3), 361–393.

In conclusion, increasing teacher development is extremely beneficial. Both teachers and students benefit from higher standards. If no one takes advantage of opportunities, such as thorough developmental programs, students may not be reaching their full potential. Through these programs, teachers can learn new techniques from all fellow employees and bring it into their classrooms. So now the real question is, why would you not develop teachers so their students can reach the highest potential possible.

 

References

Derse, L.; Lind, K.; Mahaffey, D. (2005). Professional Development Plan. Retrieved from http://tepdl.dpi.wi.gov/files/tepdl/pdf/pdpeducatortoolkit.pdf

Ford, T. (2013). Interview conducted by Mason Ford on February 18, 2013

Greenwald, R., Hedges, L. V., & Laine, R. D. (1966). The effect of school resources on student achievement. Review of Education Research, 66(3), 361–393.

McRobbie, J. (2000). TEACHER DEVELOPMENT: Policies that Make Sense. Received from http://www.wested.org/online_pubs/teacher_dev/TeacherDev.pdf

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The Soul of a School

April 30, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Public Education Programs, School Structure, Technology

 

Cicero said “To add a library to a house is to give that house a soul” (Goodreads, n.p). When envisioning a library, some may picture dusty catacombs full of tall shelves where books by the greats—Chaucer, Shakespeare, Milton—are stacked. Others may consider one small bookshelf filled with their favorite stories. A library may simply be a pile of one or two: the books they have read over and over again. In a high school setting, a library is the locale for last minute studying, printing, and finishing homework. Public schools are beginning to catch up with the fast times by equipping their libraries with some of the newest technology available and setting higher standards for librarians.

When our parents’ generation was still in school, libraries looked very different. Maureen Quinlan paints a picture in her article “Libraries in Schools Keeping Up with Times”:

Back in the day, students stacked books onto numerous shelves that filled large, dusty rooms. Others sat at tables and took notes from huge volumes of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Librarians flipped through card catalogs to find book titles that aided students’ research (Quinlan, 2012).

The high school library is no longer a room at the heart of the school filled with dusty books that have not been checked out for ten years. Today, Quinlan says, the high school library is “a multifunctional space meant to unite a community and aid the creative and innovative learning and teaching process” (Quinlan, 2012). The metamorphosis of the school library has occurred rapidly, especially in the last decade. Susan Ballard, President of the American Association of School Librarians (AASL) says that libraries “have morphed into a hybrid model that pulls resources from the traditional print format and the newer digital format” (Ballard, 2012). She goes on to say that the AASL cannot be “bashful when advocating for students and 21st century learning standards” (Ballard, 2012). To give an idea of the kinds of technology schools are arming themselves with, Quinlan lists a Massachusetts school’s inventory: “laptops, Skype, a video chat program that various classes have used to talk to people in other countries, e-books, Nooks, and Kindles” (Quinlan, 2012). Librarians are creating a place where students feel comfortable spending time and providing resources more familiar to the average 21st century adolescent.

In addition to the great amount of technological inventory, librarians are being pushed to achieve higher standards. Librarians in Arizona, for example, must all carry a teaching degree and have had at least one year of teaching experience—sometimes even a Master’s Degree is required (Perritt & Thomas, 2003). Ballard says her passion is “for strong, school library programs with effective, certified school librarians at the helm…[who] make a tremendous difference in assuring excellence in teaching and learning” (Ballard, 2012). AASL approves universities and colleges attended by future librarians and media specialists and assure that the heart and soul of a school—the library—has the very best people running it.

Public schools are rife with benefits for each student, such as after school activities and clubs, but perhaps the most overlooked is the access to a great amount of information, resources, and sense of community that is provided by the library. Thanks to committees and organizations such as the AASL, libraries are guaranteed to be beneficial places of study for all those who seek them.

 

References

Ballard, S.D. (2012). AASL President’s Page. Ala.org. Retrieved from http://www.ala.org/aasl/aboutaasl/aaslgovernance/a aslpres/presidentspage

Ballard, S.D. (2012). School Library Advocacy Impact Quotes. Ilovelibraries.org. Retrieved from http://www.ilovelibraries.org/school-library-advocacy-impact-quotes

Cicero. Quotes about Libraries. Goodreads.com. Retrieved from http://www.goodreads.com/quotes/tag/libraries?auto _login_attempted=true

Perritt, P.H. & Thomas, M.J. (2003). A Higher Standard. School Library Journal. Retrieved from http://www.schoollibraryjournal.com/article/CA339562.html?industryid=47056

Quinlan, M. (2012). Libraries in schools keeping up with times. Boston.com. Retrieved from http://www.boston.com/news/local/articles/2012/04/01/high_school_libraries_more_than_just_a_place_to_study_these_days_1333162611/

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The Center of Public Education

April 30, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Public Vs. Private, School Structure

 

In today’s society, there are several ways a student can acquire a pre-college education, each of which has certain benefits and detriments as compared to the other choices.  If the main objective for a student is to obtain the best available education that will prepare the student for work and life after school, attending public school is the best option for most. It has significant advantages over attending private schools or being home schooled. Among those advantages are the quality of the broad-based education, the diversity experienced in attending public schools, and the affordability of public schools.

There have been ongoing debates about whether private schools provide a better education than public schools. Although there are benefits for going to a private school, the rewards for public schools outweigh the advantages of going to a private school. Statistics demonstrate that private schools have equivalent test scores in comparison to those in public schools. As seen in Figure 1, although the private schools can show higher than average test scores in a greater percentage of private schools than public schools, the variability of those scores among private schools is greater than the variability among public schools.  This suggests that other factors, such as the student’s background, economic status of the family and level of effort put into his or her education are important factors in the outcome of the scores in the private schools as compared to the public school (or the private schools may simply be teaching how to take standardized tests).  Despite this, the additional cost of attending a private school is significant. There is simply no explanation as to why students would pay extra money to get the same basic education when they could be paying less. Students in public schools who have the drive and will to learn have an equal or even greater success rate to those who go to private school.  Overall money does not dictate on how well educated a student will become. It depends largely on the commitment and philosophy of the schools that the student attends and the effort he or she puts into learning.

graph05

Figure 1

Note. The data on tests scores is adapted from “Public and Private Average Test Scores,” by Rusin, M.

In the last couple of years, there has been an increase in the enrollment of online classes and home-schooling. Although these students may be able to learn the same material as traditional schools, they often miss out on several life lessons that cannot be learned from a book. For example, attending a public school allows students to gain social skills, which are very important to life and ultimately to their success in the workforce. Every job requires some kind of social skills. Along with social skills, students attending public school are provided with greater opportunity to make new friends and have a shared enjoyment of their schooling experience. Public schools generally have a varied student body representing different social classes and backgrounds. This is the type of community that most people will experience and interact with as adults. In addition, public schools allow students to be exposed to other people’s points of views, beliefs and ideologies. The choices of classes that are available in public school are much broader than those attained though homeschooling: “The number of students in a public school classroom provides opportunities that don’t exist in most home-schools, from large-scale projects to team sports” (In Defense of Public Education, 2012). Besides the social skills gained, public school provide an array of clubs and sport activities such as soccer and Spanish clubs that provides them with a broader-based education. Home-schooling isolates students and does not provide them the opportunity to experience school activities.

Every type of school has potential benefits; however, a public school education is available to everyone and provides a quality education for free. Obtaining an excellent education is very important for college and attaining a prosperous job. Public schools also provide solid educational opportunities and allow students to develop social skills and participate in activities that will prepare them for life as an adult. Statistics prove that public schools have the same academic level as private school, and provide school activities that are not available for students that are home schooled. Allowing students to attain a quality education and preparing them for the future is the ultimate goal for attending a public school.

 

References

Moore, J.(December 17 2007). The Advantages and Disadvantages of Public Versus Private Schools. February 1, 2013, http://voices.yahoo.com/the-advantages-disadvantages-  public-versus-703249.html

Park,D.(November 7 2000). Advantages of Public Education. February 1, 2013, http://www.smart voter.org/2000/11/07/ca/sac/vote/park_d/paper3.html

Rusin,M.(November 18 2012). In Defense of Public Education. February 1, 2013, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/michael-rusin/chicago-charter-schools_b_1894337.html

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Benefits of Public Education

April 30, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Laws Affecting Public Education, Reforms in Public Schools

 

The government of the United States of America is constantly seeking ways to cut spending. Several strategies have been proposed to address this issue, but what many fail to realize is before cutting billions of dollars in expenses, this country’s priorities need to be set and education must be at the top of the list. On the surface, allotting additional funds to public education may not seem a priority to some, but ultimately, this plan will save money. Providing a quality education to our nation’s children insures success and security for the general population and maintains the United States’ position in the world.  Everyone benefits from a publicly funded quality education.

Supporting public education is an investment in this country’s future. Having a highly and diversely educated population will insure a progressive economy that will contribute to new advancements in the future.  Government funding is essential to creating a quality education system that will earn results.  The top educated countries in the world generally allocate significant amounts of money towards education. Currently, the U.S. government allocates more money for education than any other nation in the world, but that figure is deceiving because the US population is greater than most countries.  Despite this spending, the US is ranked fourth in world for the highest number of college educated people.  In addition, providing a quality education to all, increasing the high school graduation rates and creating avenues where graduates can learn career skills at universities, trade and technical schools will foster individual success in finding jobs that will provide suitable living conditions:  “Research shows that individuals who graduate and have access to quality education throughout primary and secondary school are more likely to find gainful employment, have stable families, and be active and productive citizens” (Economic Benefits of Public Education 2013). The people who are able to provide for themselves will help contribute to fixing the economy.  It is becoming increasingly difficult for individuals to afford a post-secondary education. This particularly affects lower income families who lack of funds. Helping fund public education at all levels – primary, secondary and post-secondary education is the solution for insuring a more robust economy for the U.S.

Change in Unemployment rates

graph04

Figure 1.

Note. The data on test scores is adapted from “Unemployment Rates in Current Society,” by Mitra Dana

Many people may ask how being better educated will save the government money. To start, high school dropouts are more than twice as likely to be unemployed and three times more likely to receive welfare assistance which ultimately costs billions of tax dollars each year.  If public schools decrease the number of dropouts by half, the U.S. would save 45 billion dollars per year.  Increasing graduation rates will create dramatic government savings that can then be used to support other worthy governmental goals. As seen in figure 1, the least educated have the lowest chance of obtaining a job.  In addition to high school dropouts costing the government several billions of dollars each year, they start a chain reaction that leads to more welfare handouts being poured into the penal and justice systems. Statistics state that 41% of all prisoners have not completed high school. The cost of incarcerating each prisoner is about $32,000 annually while a quality public education costs around $11,000 per student annually.  High school graduates will now generate revenue instead of draining scarce governmental resources. Even if graduates decide not to attend college or other trade schools, they still have a 4% greater chance of finding a job than those who drop out of high school.

Providing a quality education for all citizens should be a top priority when deciding how to spend government funds. Allowing everyone to obtain a quality education will ultimately save billions of dollars that are spent on welfare and Penal systems that are populated by those who dropped out of school or failed to receive basic education. Having a solid education allows people to be more self-sufficient and contribute positively to the economy, which will ultimately reduce crime rates. If the U.S. government allocates substantial funds to public education, it will reap positive results.

 

References

Esler, E (November 4, 2012). Positives of Public Schooling. March 25, 2013, http://www.chronicleonline.com/content/positives-public-schools

Mitra, D (January 22, 2012). Fiscal Year 2013 Proposed Budget. March 22, 2013,  http://www.elc-pa.org/BestInvestment_Full_Report_6.27.11.pdf

Thorton, B (January 31, 2012).Most Educated Counties in the World. March 25, 2013, http://247wallst.com/2012/01/31/the-10-most-educated-countries-in-the-world/

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Public Schools Act as a Salvation for the Struggling Artist

April 30, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Fine Arts, Public Education Programs

Public Schools Act as a Salvation for the Struggling Artist

            Drawing, dancing, acting, and practicing instruments are skills that are often taken for granted, especially referring to curriculum’s values. Standardized testing focuses strictly on the necessities, such as math and English. However, public schools have begun to change their outlook on the classes once mislabeled as frivolous. “Fine art is part of the state-required curriculum that all school districts must offer from elementary through high school. Fine arts classes that meet during the school day are inarguably curricular by nature and by law” (Floyd, 2011). Fine arts are imperative to a student’s potential in further education, in the career world and in social settings. Public schools are ensuring a bright future by offering fine art classes which entail endless benefits.

Through the constant maintenance of various fine arts, one’s brain will flourish earlier and blossom brighter. Hamblen, author of Benefits of Arts Education states that the arts “stimulate and develop the imagination and critical thinking, and refine cognitive and creative skills” (Hamblen, 2009). Fine arts programs nurture academic achievement, motivation, self-confidence and self-discipline. A few of these programs that are offered are: dance, drawing, and singing in a choir. Dance connects the mind and body creating a sense of self control and coordination. Drawing and other visual arts foster spatial acuity. Group activities, such as singing in a choir or acting build social skills. Art is an emotional outlet that everyone can profit from, especially the green and malleable minds of children. Without these classes, one would be denying future generations of prosperity.

Public schools have taken strides to safe-guard students’ rights to enroll in fine art classes. In an online article, titled Why Arts Education is Crucial, the author informs that “Forty-seven states have arts-education mandates, forty-eight have arts-education standards, and forty have arts requirements for high school graduation, according to the 2007-08 AEP state policy database” (Smith, 2009). Fine arts are no longer being dismissed as a trivial school subject but are getting recognition by the majority of the United States.  For example, California’s “State Board of Education has newly adopted arts standards for what students need to know at every grade level. An arts test is being considered. And some California universities will soon require students to have taken at least one year of arts in high school” (Hamlin, 2002).  By doing so, California public schools have placed an emphasis on the importance of fine art. “In classrooms across the Bay Area, musicians and artists are sitting down with classroom teachers to pass on skills and tips, ranging from how to make instruments to how to mold clay” (Hamlin, 2002). Artistic ideas and techniques are shared with school teachers by professionals, therefore ensuring that students will receive maximal information and the best fine art education possible. The values of these classes are pertinent to school administrators and board members. Upon analyzing the graph below, one can notice the soaring percentage of public schools nation-wide that offer at least one music course.

assk

Figure 1. Percent of Schools with at Least One Music Course by State (2011). Note: From School Band and Orchestra. Copyright  2013 Symphony Publishing. Reprinted with permission.

            Under scrutiny, it is discovered that fine art classes produce an endless harvest of physical and mental health. However, with any advantage, people are likely to seek out shortcomings as well. Like many parents, Donna Alexandria expressed her concern “One disadvantage is the pressure children often feel in competing” (Alexandria, 2008). The pressure to compete can be in auditions for orchestra or jazz band, or achieving a specific level in choir or dance. But whoever said competition is a bad thing? Because there are stakes, students are more likely to put more effort into their activity. This could entail frequent practice, or taking lessons outside of school. Pressure is not necessarily negative. Pressure can be replaced with passion.

Public schools that have adopted fine art programs reap the benefits. Narrator of a study depicting Florida’s music education, MacArthur incorporated many convincing statistics; “Students taking courses in music performance and music appreciation score higher in the SAT than students with no arts participation. Music performance students scored 53 points higher on the verbal and 39 points higher on the math. Music appreciation students scored 61 points higher on the verbal and 42 points higher on the math” (MacArthur, n.d.). Students who are enrolled in a music class have also been proven to receive more As and Bs along with more honors and academic achievement awards than students who do not participate in a music class.

Hamblen found that student enhancement occurs because “the arts engage all the senses and involve a variety of modalities including the kinesthetic, auditory, and visual…The arts can play a crucial role in improving students’ abilities to learn, because they draw on a range of intelligences and learning styles, not just the linguistic and logical-mathematical intelligences upon which most schools are based” (Hamblen, 2009).

If students are given the opportunity to explore the arts at a young age, they are likely to lead a successful and creative life. By offering fine art classes, public schools allow students to utilize the tools they are given and ultimately establish a profitable future.

 

 

References

Alexandria, D. (2008, January 11).The Pros and Cons of Fine Arts. Retrieved from http://www.helium.com/items/295019-the-pros-and-cons-of-performing-arts-oriented-high-schools

Floyd, R. (2011, March 26). Students benefit from fine arts courses. Retrieved from http://amarillo.com/opinion/opinion-columnist/guest-opinion-columnist/2011-03-27/students-benefit-fine-arts-courses

Hamblen, K. (2009, April 04). American for the arts. Retrieved from http://www.artsusa.org/get_involved/advocacy/funding_resources/default_005.asp

Hamlin, J. (2002, May 15). Schools short on fine-arts teachers / districts get creative to take up the slack read more: http://www.sfgate.com/education/article/schools-short-on-fine-arts-teachers-districts-2836081.php

MacArthur, D. (n.d.). Florida school music association. Retrieved from http://flmusiced.org/dnn/Advocacy/FactsandStatistics.aspx

Morrison, R. (2011, June 23). School band and orchestra. Retrieved from http://www.sbomagazine.com/8146/featured/from-the-trenches-the-report-of-our-death-has-been-greatly-exaggerated/

Smith, F. (2009, January 28). Edutopia. Retrieved from http://www.edutopia.org/arts-music-curriculum-child-development

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The Importance of Art in Public Education

April 29, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Fine Arts, Public Education Programs

 

School is an extremely important part of a child’s life. It is the place where he can learn and express himself in different ways, depending on his favorite topic to study. One option these young pupils have is to attend a public institute. Unfortunately, many people strongly oppose free public education. They believe private schools offer better teachers and a more advanced learning experience. While this may hold truth in some aspects, other factors disprove the theory. For example, most private schools do not require their students to take a form of vocational or fine arts; whereas, those classes are offered on a regular basis in elementary and secondary school. In fact, the courses are part of the graduation requirements for most public high schools. Offering art courses in public schools is considered a benefit because it allows students to express themselves and provides an opportunity to better their education experience.

Throughout the course of many decades, several organizations have joined the fight to keep art education in public schools. One such organization is the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA for short). Congress established this program in 1965 to “support artistic excellence, creativity, and innovation for the benefit of individuals and communities” (National Endowment for the Arts, 2013). With countless surveys and hours of research, the NEA has worked to show the positives of art in public schools. Another group that fights alongside the NEA to keep art education in public schools is the Center for Arts Education in New York City. Both of these programs have uncovered many benefits of art programs and classes within public schools.

Director Doug Israel of the Center for Arts Educations research department has worked with the NEA to determine whether public schools should continue to offer art classes or not. He discovered that: “kids that are struggling in other academic subjects or do not do well sitting behind the desk the entire school day actually respond and perform when given an opportunity to engage in arts learning, whether it be dance, theater, music or the visual arts” (Ni, 2012). Because kids are able to express themselves in their own innovative and creative way, they are able to perform better in these classes, as opposed to solely taking seemingly endless notes for hours on end. Israel determined that it is imperative that students take one form of art in school in order to ensure that students do not lose their creative thinking, as well as have the chance to keep their cultural background. With the chance to incorporate a student’s cultural background, the student will be able to express himself in his own creative way.

Not only do art classes offer a way for students to be creative, but they also improves their education. Lisa Bergonzi and Julia Smith, two researchers at the NEA, conducted a study on the effects of an arts education in public schools. One of Bergonzi and Smith’s focuses was whether students should devote more time to art courses or their general education ones. After testing students’ active participation in different types of art, they came to the conclusion that: “getting a solid arts education has a stronger effect on students who have a strong educational background in general, so that arts education simply adds on to the effect of other schooling” (Bergonzi, Smith, 1996). With students acquiring an arts education at the same time as their common core classes, they are able to improve in both subjects, therefore receiving a deeper, more thorough education. This is yet another reason why public school students receive a better learning experience.

Due to the fact that public schools offer many different visual and vocational arts courses, students are able to express themselves while bettering their education experience. While some private schools offer these courses, many do not; thereby, decreasing the effectiveness of paying for an education. The positives of public schools outweigh those of private schools, and one reason is due to the ability of art classes to help enhance a student’s education in public institutions. It is for these reasons why it is imperative to keep these classes in public schools.

 

References

Bergonzi, L. and Smith, J. (1996). Effects of Arts Education on Participation in the Arts. National Endowment for the Arts. Retrieved from http://www.nea.gov/research/reports/NEA-Research-Report-36.pdf

National Endowment for the Arts. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.nea.gov/about/index.html

Ni, Kelly (April 14, 2012). Arts Education Benefits Public School Students. Epoch Times. Retrieved from http://www.theepochtimes.com/n2/united-states/arts-education-benefits-public-school-students-220167.html

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Rewarding Reasons Why Every Student Should Study Abroad

April 28, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Public Education Programs

 

When a person lives in the same place for his entire life, it is only natural to have a yearning to escape his normal environment for somewhere more exciting. A change of scenery can be accomplished by choosing a university far away from home; but, if a student is unable to leave his home for school, a second option is to study abroad for a semester. While being alone in a foreign country may strike fear in the hearts of students and their parents, studying abroad can be a valuable experience. There are many personal and educational benefits from studying abroad that can stay with a person for the rest of his life. Students who study abroad gain an understanding of themselves and the world around them. Personal, cultural, and educational benefits can come from foreign study programs.

Any long term separation from one’s parents can be terrifying, but it can also provide a maturity to be able to take care of oneself. When a student is dropped into a foreign country, where norms do not seem normal and everyone speaks a strange language, maturity must come immediately in order to adjust to the situation. In a survey of alumni of the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) study abroad program from 1950 to 1999, 97 percent of those surveyed said that studying abroad caused improved maturity. Along with this maturity, better self-confidence was also achieved (Dwyer & Peters, 2004). Despite such a dramatic change, most students found they were able to cultivate a better understanding of who they were, which allowed them to take advantage of the amazing learning experience. Another aspect of personal growth that is affected by studying abroad is personal relationships. The experience created lasting friendships with their American fellows as well as the foreign students. Many of the surveyed alumni also said that the experience affects their current relationships. “73 percent said that the experience continues to influence the decisions they make in their family life” (Dwyer & Peters, 2004). These personal changes can make the students become logical, mature adults who can deal with anything that comes their way in the future.

Table 1. Results of IES Study Abroad Survey

table06

Note. The data on the IES Study Abroad survey is adapted from “Benefits of Study Abroad” by Dwyer, M., & Peters, C., 2004, Clark University. Adapted with permission.

As expected, studying abroad also benefits a student by giving him a new world view. Ninety-five percent of the surveyed said that the impact on their perspectives has lasted throughout their lives (Dwyer & Peters, 2004). As seen in Table 1, the view of their own world had been altered as well. The realization dawns that every culture is dramatically different from one another. The students have been taught to respect other cultures, and foreign political and economic systems, which many study abroad programs hold as their main goal (Dwyer & Peters, 2004). This impact is not fleeting; many said that “the experience still influences interactions with people of different cultures” (Dwyer & Peters, 2004). World leaders have been made from students who have the experience because their views are no longer ethnocentric and understand the world better.

Finally, studying abroad also benefits future education and careers. Nearly 90 percent of the people surveyed said the experience influenced future education; many even changed their path of study (Dwyer & Peters 2004). Nearly half of students pursued international work after travelling. Study abroad programs also developed students’ language skill:. “Continued language usage was greatest among respondents who lived in a homestay, with 42 percent saying they now use a language other than English on a regular basis”(Dwyer & Peters 2004). While this number drops in the two other types of homes, dormitories with foreign students and apartments with other American students, the percentage barely drops under 20 percent, which is still a large chunk of students. This bilingual ability makes students who studied abroad more valuable to employers. Eighty-four percent of students who were in a study abroad program feel like they gained valuable career skills. Employers also tend to pay study abroad students around $7000 more on average for a starting salary (“Career Benefits” 2012). A student’s time abroad can provide heightened success in the future.

All of these benefits have convinced many students to study abroad. Not only do they gain the experience in a new land, but students may also obtain the long-lasting effects. They are able to see the world in a fresh perspective; they gain confidence and maturity that allows them to face adversity; and their resume becomes much more impressive. Every student should consider a study abroad program. Luckily, many public schools, such as Desert Vista High School, offer short-term summer study abroad opportunities that can give students a taste of what could be explored if they decide to do a longer program in the future. Not only would he or she get to experience a foreign country, but there are also many long-term benefits in store.

 

References

Career Benefits of Study Abroad . (2012). Institute of Education Sciences. Retrieved from http://www.iesabroad.org/study-abroad/why/career-benefits

Dwyer, M., & Peters, C. (2004, May 01). Benefits of Study Abroad. Clark University. Retrieved from http://www.clarku.edu/offices/studyabroad/pdfs/IES Study.pdf

Dwyer, M., & Peters, C. (2004). Results from IES Study Abroad Survey. Clark University.

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Get a Coach

April 26, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Public Vs. Private, School Structure

 

Public versus private, that is the question most parents must ask themselves today. It has been stated that public schools are on par with private schools when it comes to the level of education. If this is correct, then why do private school students perform better on standardized tests than those who attend public schools? The widely accepted statement that public schools match up with private schools has been justified.

Research shows that spending the extra money to enroll children in private schools is proven to be beneficial when it comes to acceptance into college. The average ACT score for private school students was 23.6. Public school students, on the contrary, only scored an average of 21.7 (Kelley, 2013).  According to the difference in scores it seems obvious that private schools are doing a better job than public schools when it comes to preparing students. Therefore, success test prep is a reason enrollment into private schools is popular.

On the other hand, the reason those who attend private schools perform better is not actually due to a more advanced education. According to John Cloud, a senior writer for Time Magazine, “The problem isn’t the schools; it’s with social inequality” (Cloud, 2007). Generally kids who attend private schools come from families who have extra money to spend on school. These wealthier families have “the kinds of economic and resource advantages to give to students” (Cloud, 2007). Parents are able to afford coaching for tests such as the SAT. Studies show that “once you control socioeconomic status- students at private schools aren’t performing better than those at public school” (Kelly, 2013). The results from the studies deteriorate the false phenomenon that private schools are superior. In short, public schools teach their students just as well as private schools.

Returning to the subject of private education, parents are eager to send their children to private schools because of the smaller class size. Private schools have classrooms that, on average, have four fewer kids per class than public schools (Rampell, 2009). A smaller classroom allows for more interaction with the teacher. The more students can interact with teachers, the more questions they can ask, which leads to a more positive learning experience. Less students also means there will be fewer distractions. Since private schools are able to select those who attend, kids who would be classified as “trouble makers” can be rejected from the school. Thus, smaller class sizes are a sought after feature of private schools.

The rebuttal to the slighter classroom sizes greatly outweighs the pro discussion pushing for smaller classrooms. Small scale classrooms would not only require more rooms, but also more teachers (Chen, 2008). Smaller, less diverse classrooms means students will not get the experience necessary to function in the real world. Students do not learn how to work with large groups of people. In fact, 58% of those enrolled in public school are Caucasian, while 74% of those enrolled in private schools are Caucasian (IES, 2010). Children in private schools are not exposed to other races of people and their cultures. In today’s modern society, people are not separated into pocket-sized, predominately white groups of people. Therefore, decreasing the number of students in a classroom is not preparing the youth how to function well with others. In the long run, smaller classrooms will do more harm than good.

In conclusion, public schools provide an education equal to that of a private school. The separation factor is the economic gap between families. The less populated classrooms may seem like a pro, but will actually account for more harm in the future. Rather than pay all the money for a private school, you can pay for a tutor for tests such as the SAT or ACT and get the same results.

 

 

References

Chen, G. (2008, April 23). Smaller Class Sizes: Pros and Cons | PublicSchoolReview.com.

Retrieved from http://www.publicschoolreview.com/articles/18

 

Cloud, J. (2007, October 10). Time U.S.. Retrieved from

http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,1670063,00.html

IES (2010). National Center For Education Statistics. Retrieved from

http://economix.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/09/11/class-size-around-the-world/

 

Kelley, J. (2013, January 13). Private schools top public in average act, sat scores [Web log

message]. Retrieved from http://www.daytondailynews.com/news/news/local

education/private-schools-top-public-in-average-act-sat-scor/nTtCq/

Rampell, C. (2009, September 11). Class Sizes Around the World. The New York Times [New

York].

 

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Getting Ready for a Globalized Nation

April 26, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Common Core, School Structure

 

In China there is a 100 percent attendance of both men and women to first and secondary schooling. In Shanghai, exams that test the application of real-life skills have made their education system the best in the world (Singmaster 2010). As the world is changing the Shanghai people have adapted to it and formed an education system that forces the best from their students. Following suit, the formation of Common Core standardized testing is crucial to keeping the education system in line with the modernizing world. These new tests will set benchmarks designed for better preparation of students striving towards college and careers. The new Common Core standards will secure the United States as a leader in the developing world.

The public education system is now on course to raise the standards of every school and establish a base platform for curriculum. Therefore, the government is requiring schools to administer the test PARCC (Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers) or a similar examination plan that scores students proficiency in math and language arts. Improvement is on the cusp for education; the PARCC test is a significant step towards having students in public schools be fully prepared for college and the workforce (Morella, 2012). Adjustment is needed with the approach of teaching in American schools; it is imperative that the schools conform to the new testing and adopt the new curriculum. With this change it is going to ultimately ready students to participate in the ever growing competition for work. Michael Morella, of U.S. News Weekly, reports on Kentucky as they are first state to preview the test (PARCC) and new core standards; he found that students “seem to like it because the content, the standards, they’re more problem solving, they’re more engaging, they require more student responsibilities” (Morella, 2012). The assessment showed a drop in scores of both subjects with preliminary testing, but there was a significant rise in scores in the consecutive year’s test scores. There was also a rise in students being sufficiently prepared, for their future endeavors such as college or the workforce, from a beginning 38 percent to 47 percent (Morella, 2012). These scores demonstrate that there will be a leap in the proficiency of students with the new core requirements if they are implemented correctly. In addition, teachers are becoming profoundly better in delivering the new content. The results from Kentucky enforce the necessity of having and supporting public education in its move to Common Core, as it is working towards restoring the country.

Marc Tucker, president of the non-profit National Center on Education and Economy and internationally known expert on reform, states that as labor markets increasingly become global, people are beginning to compete with individuals all over the world who possess the same skill level. It is now evident that finding what skills and knowledge are necessary for a student is at the peak of importance in education (Tucker, 2013). Knowing the basics in education is essential, and the new test and curriculum will go further by applying critical thinking. What is also being seen is that the economy is changing, and some job opportunities are starting to disappear. Although, with old possibilities closing, inventive people will begin to create new ones. There is no way of predicting the direction in which the world will move in this respect, but shaping the younger generations to be prepared for it is vital. That is why making a more rigorous test is urgent: to create a firm base students can branch off of. Tucker addresses this in his article: “Whatever those challenges turn out to be, I can guarantee you that they will not be met by people without strong quantitative skills, people who cannot construct a sound argument, people who know little of history or geography or economics, people who cannot write well” (Tucker, 2013), which further argues the need of having Common Core to drive students in fulfilling the abilities Tucker mentions. He continues by saying, “Without broad agreement on a well designed and internationally benchmarked system of standards, we have no hope of producing a nation of students who have the kind of skills, knowledge and creative capacities the nation so desperately needs” (Tucker, 2013). Tucker reinforces his belief that the Common Core will take the nation in the direction toward making progression. There is a need for finding assessments to test the skills that all students should be learning in school; this will be met with the PARCC test when it is applied.

In Lawrence Hardy’s article, The Backlash Against Common Core, published in the January issue of American School Board Journal, he discusses the opposing ideas against Common Core that are under consideration. Those who are disagreeing with the new form of national testing and elevated core standards feel that schools are taking a step in the wrong direction. Some arguments include that the increasingly high budget cuts to public education restricts the schools from having teachers who are able to teach the new curriculum (Hardy, 2009). This thought on the new standards is flawed; they require a change in style and difficulty of the curriculum, but fundings are being supported through government help. The teachers do not need to be retrained, but instead change the way they teach their courses and implement the material. Another factor that counter groups argue is that the program is funded by the Obama administration. Therefore, it impedes on state rights and matters (Hardy, 2009). This is preposterous, considering public education is being funded by the government; the states’ funds currently are not supplying well formulated tests and curriculum. The state standards on education are in shards, and without this reform for the school system, public education will continue to weaken. Along with fixing the school system, it will allow U.S. students up to compete with children internationally and put the nation among the top-achieving countries. The arguments against the PARCC test and the new curriculum are weak and possess no credibility; the direction the nation is heading is promising.

Globalization is governing where the nations’ children are headed in their educational pursuits. With the pressure to equal the success and abilities of other countries, alterations of education are centered around remaining on top. The country is giving into this change by forming a centralized education platform for students across the nation. Yong Zhao, presidential chair and associate dean for global education at the University of Oregon’s College of Education and previous director of both the Center for Teaching and Technology and the U.S.-China Center for Research on Educational Excellence at Michigan State University, effectively explains, “The standards are designed to be robust and relevant to the real world, reflecting the knowledge and skills that our young people need for success in college and careers” (Zhao, 2013). Unification in this effort to building a stronger education for the nations’ prospering pupils will go further than separate attempts. Public education must extend to meet the new demands of the twenty-first century. Boundaries have been eliminated within the globe; we have closed the gap of geographical distance, and competition has grown. To continue to be on top of the global food chain, the nation must fight to bridge the gap present with other competitors. Do we have what it takes to be globally competitive?

References

Hardy, L. (2013). The backlash against common core. (1st ed., Vol. 200). Alexandria, VA: The American School Board Journal. Retrieved from http://www.asbj.com/MainMenuCategory/Archive/2013/January

Morella, M. (2012, December 4). Common core standards: Early results from kentucky are in. U.S. News. Retrieved from http://www.usnews.com/opinion/articles/2012/12/04/common-core-standards-early-results-from-kentucky-are-in

Singmaster, H. (2011, December 3). Shanghai: The world’s best education system. Retrieved from http://asiasociety.org/education/learning-world/shanghai-worlds-best-school-system

Tucker, M. (2013, January 15). Common core standards: Arguments against — and for. The Washington post. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/answer-sheet/wp/2013/01/15/common-core-standards-arguments-against-and-for

Zhao, Y. (2013, January 8). Five key questions about the common core standards. The Washington post. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/answer-sheet/wp/2013/01/08/five-key-questions-about-the-common-core-standards/

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A Momentus Decision

April 25, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Public Vs. Private, School Structure

            As their child reaches his sixth birthday, parents are faced with a momentous decision: public or private school? It is a decision that comes with considerable weight, and many parents hesitate over one or the other before finally making their verdict. Some embrace the private school system, citing ‘better quality education’. On the other hand, the answer for many will ultimately be public school– and rightly so. Among many other services, public schools provide free education, as well as a diverse environment through which students can grow and mature.

Each year, the price of private schools seems to be increasing and increasing. In fact, last year’s median private school tuition in the state of New York was a whopping $36,970, up from $21,000 from a little over a decade ago– that sum is more than yearly tuition at Harvard. (Anderson , 2012) Many families simply cannot afford to pay such exorbitant rates for their child’s education. On the other hand, public schools have their doors wide open and admit everyone and anyone, regardless of wealth or background. Without this invaluable resource, many less wealthy and lower income families would not be able to educate their children.

By the same token, public schools afford a much higher level of diversity among their classes. Students are exposed to an array of different classmates with a wealth of differing backgrounds. With private schools, the extravagant prices often serve to segregate families of various standings unintentionally. Private schools are increasingly made of homogeneous classrooms where racial and socioeconomic diversity is often markedly less than that of public

schools– all the students’ disadvantage (Fulwood, 2011). Like the real world, schools should reflect the increasing cultural diversity in society.  Private schools,simply by nature, are unable to do so. As a result, they fail to provide a holistic environment in which their students can grow and mature as individuals.

In essence, public schools are able to provide certain invaluable services that private schools simply are not built to offer. As such, public schools remain the most ethnically diverse and affordable choice for parents today. Chiefly, they are essential institutions for children living in lower and middle class incomes. The services that they provide, and the environments that they foster are priceless centers of learning for children.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Anderson , J. (2012, 01 27). Bracing for $40000 at new york city private schools. New York Times.          Retrieved from  http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/29/nyregion/scraping-the-40000-ceiling-at-ne

w-york-city-private-schools.html?pagewanted=all&_r=1&

Fulwood, S. (2011, 12 06). Race and beyond: We need diversity in education. The Center for

            American Progress. Retrieved from http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/race/news/2011/06/10852/race-and-beyond-we-need-diversity-in-education/  

 

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Paving the Road to Success

April 25, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, School Structure, Testing

High stakes testing is a system where important consequences are placed on students’ test scores. In turn, these test scores help to evaluate and ascertain student progress. Nationwide testing programs like Race to the Top are continually improving and evolving to fit students’ needs. These tests are the pillars of our curriculum and school system. Without them, educators’ ability to measure student progress and growth in public schools would be severely affected. Thus, high stakes testing is beneficial because it provides a way to measure student achievement, ensures that important standards are met, and verifies that teachers are quality reinforcers of learning.

According to the American Psychological Association, “Measuring how well students learn is an important building block in the process of strengthening and improving our nation’s schools. Tests, along with student grades and teacher evaluations, can provide critical measures of students’ skills, knowledge, and abilities” (Redwood, 2010). Without high stakes testing, there is no comprehensive way of measuring a student’s progress. The program allows public schools to be evaluated on a fair basis, where students are not subjected to the biases of an individual grader.

Moreover, high stakes testing ensures that teachers cover the proper curriculum. According to the National Center for Fair and Open Testing, “High stakes testing can result in teachers teaching

toward the test” (Paige, 2007). That means that the amount of time spent Some argue that the incentives offered to public schools

create formulaic instruction. However, according to the Center for Public Education, “Teaching to the test can be good or bad…[It can be beneficial] if it means teaching a focused and aligned curriculum” (Mitchell, 2010). In addition, Linda Smith, a professor at Liberty University stated, “Today’s educators are looking at it from a standards-based perspective. Their task analysis identifies what standards need to be learned. Their performance objectives are standards-based, and their criterion referenced testing is based on those standards” (Smith, 2008). Furthermore, high stakes testing is proven to secure curriculum so that it better prepares students for the future. In a case study by the Louisiana Department of Education, the study found that implementing high stakes testing raised the amount of students performing at ‘excellent’ levels:

picf 1

Figure 1: Laura Mogg, Percentage of Students Scoring at the Fair, Good, and Excellent Levels on the Algebra 1 End-of-Course Test, 2010-2011, Louisiana Department of Education

Looking at the results after high stakes testing was implemented, researchers found that: “Entering 9th graders in 2010-2011 are generally better prepared for high school than older students due to the improvements that have occurred system-wide since 2005” (Mogg, 2011).  Contrary to what many critics claim, teaching to the test actually helps to ensure that teachers establish a good foundation, from which they can later build on.

Furthermore, high stakes testing helps to ensure that teachers are quality enforcers of learning. Achieve, a non-profit organization geared towards education stated, “The Race to the Top criteria encourages states to adopt policies that measure the effectiveness of individual teachers, and provide high‐quality support for educators and principals” (Pastor, 2013). National testing helps keep the quality and standard of teaching high. The study goes on to say that the way to achieve fair :

Race to the Top also asks states to include measures other than student growth in ratings of teacher effectiveness.  These methods present fewer problems of applicability at the high school level.  They also have the advantage of illuminating not just how effective a teacher has been, but also the ways in which a teacher may need to improve in order to be more effective (Pastor, 2013).

Evaluation through nationwide testing programs like Race to the Top is crucial, because it  creates an environment where students can prosper and gain access to better education.

Nevertheless, some opponents of high stakes testing allege that high stakes tests are too mechanical. They argue that they negatively influence curriculum. Some critics claim that teaching

to the test makes teachers focus only on tested areas. Of course, teachers teach exactly to the test,

because the tests are widely available for everyone to see, right? Wrong. Critics fail to realize that high stakes testing only sets a standard at which students are required, and should learn. According to Dr. Battle, the principal of Desert Vista High School:

The public has been miscommunicating or miscommunicated about…[teaching to the test]. We know what standards kids need to learn, so therefore we teach those standards. That doesn’t mean we can’t teach more than the standards. But we must teach those standards. If that’s what teaching to the test is, then that’s what we have to do. (Dr. Battle, personal communication, October 18, 2012)

Thus, the high stakes tests are the bare bones of what needs to be learned in classrooms nationwide. Without it, schools run a risk of depriving students of a proper education. The quality of learning is not held back or forced by statewide testing, but made better by the faculty that tries to walk on water.  Furthermore, opponents of high stakes testing claim that high stakes testing is too “mechanical,” and that this bias negatively affects some students. Elaine Weber, a professor at the University of Michigan stated, “One of the biggest faults of standardized tests is that they often do not take diversity into account.  Too many of today’s tests are written so that some students are put at a disadvantage. Tests often times don’t take into account things like disabilities and socioeconomic status” (Weber, 2013). However, these criticisms fail to take into account the inherent bias present for minority groups or economically disadvantaged students. These groups of students are always going to be at a certain disadvantage, and dissolving the high stakes system

will not provide any solvency for problem. Thus, critics who assert that high stakes testing is too mechanical, fail to analyse the situation fully.

Programs like Race to the Top are integral parts of the education system today and are an elementary factor in appraising the quality of schooling. They determine student progress and set the bar high for student curriculum and teacher quality. Without them, schools would lack a fair

and comprehensive way to track and record student progress nationwide. High stakes testing thus paves the road to advances and progress in student education.

References

Mitchell, Ruth. “High-stakes Testing and Effects on Instruction: At a Glance.” Center for Public

Education . N.p., 16 Jun 2010. Web. 20 Feb 2013.

Mogg, L. (2011, August 26). High stakes end-of-course test results are encouraging.

Mogg, Laura. 2011. Percentage of Students Passing the Algebra 1 End of Course Test,

2010-2011.[Table] Retrieved from http://www.coweninstitute.com/uncategorized/high-stakes-end-of-course-test-results-are-encouraging/

Paige, Nancy. “The Dangerous Consequences of High-Stakes Standardized Testing.” The National Center for Fair and Open Testing. N.p., 07 Dec 2007. Web. 20 Feb 2013.

Pastor , Derrick . “Teacher Effectiveness.” Achieve.org. N.p., 16 Oct 2012. Web. 20 Feb 2013.

Redwood, Jean. “Appropriate Use of High-Stakes Testing in Our Nation’s Schools.” American Psychological Association. N.p., 15 Feb 2010. Web. 20 Feb 2013.

Smith, Lisa. “Using Formative Assessment to Predict Student Achievement on High Stakes Tests.”Liberty University Education Journal. N.p., 14 Apr 2008. Web. 20 Feb 2013.

Weber, Elaine. “An Analysis of High Stakes Testing.”University of Michigan. N.p., 06 Jul 2010.

Web. 20 Feb 2013.

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Not So Dumb Jock

April 25, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Athletics, Public Education Programs

            Students tend to categorize their peers. From “drama nerds” to “band geeks,” these categories have become very well recognized around campus. One of the most prominent cliques is the jocks, the dumb, but strong sports kids. However, according to USA Today, this stereotype is not entirely based on truth.“Kids who take breaks from their class work to be physically active during the day are often better able to concentrate on their school work and may do better on standardized tests” (Hellmich, 2010). So are we right to assume there is a such thing as a dumb jock? Maybe not. The physical activities performed by “jocks” stimulate their minds, in turn making them some of the more intelligent students in school.

Every school strives for continual improvement. When there is the chance to incorporate curriculum that might be beneficial to the students’ learning, whether it be physical or mental, the school board must take a moment to consider the positive potential effects. With the involvement of sports, students are able to take a mental break from all the stress that school causes and focus on different subjects: “Athletic competition and practice require self-sacrifice, accepting a short-term pain for a long-term gain. This is the core mechanic of self-discipline, the ability to make yourself do what you don’t want to do in order to enjoy greater success later” (Wayne, 2011). Sports can not only create an environment for students to release their stress, but they can also create a way for students to hone their discipline skills, in turn making them more attentive students.

The public school system is encouraging a healthy environment where students can participate in sports, if they choose to do so. Athletics in public schools are more beneficial for students versus when they are used in the private school system. Many private schools have been accused of recruiting athletes into their sports programs. It has become such a large issue in Florida that “Mandarin Christian high school was fined $142,000 for 25 violations of illegal contact with student athletes” (Mazenko, 2010). Athletics are vital; no student should be excluded from them simply because of their ability of inability in the activity. The more advanced students should not be put on a pedestal because they may be able to dunk a basketball or run faster than other students. With physical activity having such a high impact on students, who are we to deny them the exercise? There are countless benefits to being active in sports, and every student should have them available in their learning environment.

Figure 1

picf 1

Figure 1: This chart shows the relationship between the number of hours playing sports versus a student’s GPA.

Some teachers do not see the positives of school sports and school related exercise. Numerous students can benefit from sports both physically and through their grade point average (GPA). Even if the student contributes five hours a week to playing sports, the results will show that he has a more constant GPA as a result (Figure 1). Having sports in public schools helps the students more than we know. By making them more readily available, we can create a group of students who have the ability not only to graduate high school but excel through it. When students feel like they are losing control, they can use sports as an outlet to release the stress created by hours of schoolwork and to help maintain focus in the classroom. If we continue to encourage student sport activities, maybe one day the stereotype will be changed to “not-so-dumb jock.”

References

Hellmich, N. (2010, April 13). Study: Physical activity can boost student performance. Retrieved from http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/education/2010-04-14-letsmoveinschool15_ST_N.htm

Mazenko, M. (2010, December 15). Huge Fine for private schools recruiting. Retrieved from http://a-teachers-view.blogspot.com/2010/12/huge-fine-for-private-school.html

Wayne, J. (2011, September 1). How sports affect grades in a good way. Retrieved from http://www.livestrong.com/article/528318-how-sports-affect-grades-in-a-good-way/

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More Money for Mentors

April 25, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Ed Services, School Structure

Today’s youth need teachers who are willing to devote almost all of their energy to the classroom. Teachers are not the stereotypical easygoing, soft-spoken people like most people think; they are strong, tough mentors challenging children in the most exceptional ways. The current teachers’ salaries belittle the most inspirational teachers. Experienced teachers teach the material by engaging the students instead of simply handing out various notes and packets. They challenge their students to strive to be the best that they can be. They create exciting lesson plans that educate without relying primarily on memorization. Above all, teachers must devote their time, energy, and patience to their students. Not only do teachers need a commendable educational background and a satisfactory work ethic, but they must also teach at their fullest potential. At the end of the day, the minds and hearts of future generations rely on the educators of this world. With all of this pressure bestowed upon just a small group of individuals, it is a wonder why public school teachers are getting paid as little as they are. Teachers’ salaries should reflect the amount of time and effort teachers devote to their children.

The truth is, teachers carry a heavy load and need to be more recognized for their efforts. The average public school teacher’s salary before taxes can start out as low as $35,000 a year.  This meager amount is supposed to be able to support a family for a year. Proficient teachers are demanded all over America, but with the current salaries, they are running in the opposite direction: “Money is never the sole reason that people enter teaching. But it is a reason why some talented people avoid teaching–or quit the profession when starting a family or buying a home” (Duncan, 2011).  Teaching should be designated for those who know how to run a classroom and care about the well being of today’s youth. However, highly skilled people are turning away teaching jobs because the salary is not enough to support their families. As a result, those who lack the necessary fervor and passion are filling up these positions. One would think that the government would be eager to educate the next generation, and would be willing to pay an intelligent mentor nothing short of gold. Instead, more and more budget cuts are being made. Waist-deep in debt and unpaid expenses, the teachers of today are struggling to live on the salaries they are given.

Amongst the obvious anguish dealing with teachers’ salaries, two critics produced biased surveys, announcing that teachers are overpaid. These studies report that most education majors graduated in the bottom 50 percent of their class and do not usually have any better classroom skills than the average high school graduate.  They conclude that vacation days, retirement plans, and job security ultimately make teachers out to be overpaid. (Biggs and Richwine, 2011). If this is the case, then why are some teachers still looking for a second job and struggling to take care of their families? Teachers still must meet certain requirements before they can get hired, regardless of class rank. In addition, there are numerous skills learned after high school that lend a hand in helping a teacher become a professional. It takes much more than just intellectual ability to be a teacher. Teachers have to make daily lesson plans, engage all students in their activities, and adjust their plans based on individual students. These are only a few of the stresses teachers must deal with, but still research shows that they are receiving considerably less than people who have attended the same amount of school as them: “The average primary-school teacher in the United States earns about 67 percent of the salary of an average college-educated worker in the United States” (Rampell, 2012). If Biggs and Richwine cannot comprehend that teaching is hard work and not some sort of joy ride, they need to observe classrooms more often. Their studies underestimate teachers and everything they are capable of. Teachers deserve more recognition, and that is exactly what the public needs to give them.

With the fresh minds of the young and innocent in their hands, teachers should be celebrated and appreciated for their hard work. Parents want the best teachers for their kids, without having to pay private school prices for them. Even a person without a child should want the best education for the children that will one day be leading the world and making decisions that could affect hundreds of people. If the nation wants a proficient future, they should be up for the idea of paying the price.

 

 

References

Biggs, A. G. and Richwine, J ( 2011). Average Public School Teacher is Paid Too Much, U.S. News. Retrieved from http://www.usnews.com/debate-club/are-teachers-overpaid/average-public-school-teacher-is-paid-too-much

Duncan, A. ( 2011). Teachers Should Be Paid a Lot More. U.S. News Digital Weekly, Vol. 3, Issue 46. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy1.lib.az.us:2048/pov/detail?vid=4&sid=34c36298-497f-4f7b-950a-5d9af885e4fe%40sessionmgr4&hid=10&bdata=JnNpdGU9cG92LWxpdmU%3d#db=pwh&AN=67424187

Rampell , C. (2012 September 11). Does It Pay to Become a Teacher. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://economix.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/09/11/does-it-pay-to-become-a-teacher/

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The Joy of Education

April 25, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Education Services

Discussing special education/ed services is like talking about an elephant in a room. Just like this elephant, the government is choosing to ignore the significance of American special education. The importance of special education is rapidly growing as the number of children with disabilities rises in America. Yet, this is a growing issue: “Of the 53.9 million school-aged children (aged 5 to 17) in the U.S. civilian non-institutionalized population, about 2.8 million (5.2 percent) were reported to have a disability in 2010” (Brault, 2011).  This surprising increase is also shown in Figure 1, as it displays how widespread disabilities are throughout America. Public schools have made great strides towards achieving functional programs to enrich students’ learning. However, to further the special education department, they need to make certain changes. To ensure that kids with disabilities are getting the education they deserve, schools must have sufficient funds, add more useful programs, and hire more certified educators.

 

picf 1
With sufficient funding, one could only imagine all the effective programs public schools would be able to offer. There has been recent research covering which curriculums are most effective for children with special needs.  One of these programs is music therapy defined as: “a creative art therapy that crosses multiple areas of treatment and can be effective in facilitating development in numerous areas of children’s functioning” (Pellitteri, 2000). By adding music to a daily learning schedule, it can be both constructive and essential for a student. Musical experiences are not limited to just instruments but vocalization and singing as well. This allows the students to engage physically in activities and interact with others. The main goal of music therapy is to allow them to voice their creativity and develop their attention, concentration, self esteem, and self expression. This is the kind of environment that should surround students, especially those with learning disabilities.  This is an example of one of the many options for special education but must be looked into if school staffs want what is best for their learners.Money is an important factor when it comes to a valuable education. Considering all the funds that go into providing those with disabilities the schooling they deserve, it is even more necessary.  Acts such as IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act) serve to provide federal money to schools with the special education programs as long as they comply to the rules covered by section 504. This portion states: “No qualified individual with a disability in the United States shall be excluded from, denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity that receives Federal financial assistance” (U.S. Department of Justice, 2012). The federal money that is given to support the disabilities program in public schools helps improve the children’s preparation for the future. Although this may be true, on countless occasions, private schools have received an inconsistent amount of funding from supporters such as religious organizations and local school districts claiming: “Many private schools may receive federal funds from the local school district in which they are located, in the form of textbook aid or aid for school breakfast or lunch and, are therefore, covered by section 504” (Hager & Smith, 2003). Not only are they getting federal funds, but they are also receiving income from indirect supporters. Public schools deserve just as much funding for their disabilities department to ensure that students have equal opportunities in education.

It takes a concentration of patience and effort to be an educator for the Special Education Department, which is why the most important factor is teacher’s responsibility when teaching an intellectually disabled class.  There have been innumerable incidents in the news reporting abuse that took place in a Special Ed classroom by a teacher.  If a parent suspects such abuse, he or she has a limited path of action: “a complaint may be filed with the California Department of Education (CDE) under the Uniform Complaint Procedure if: a child or group of children is in immediate physical danger; or the health, safety or welfare of a child or group of children is threatened” (“Information on discipline”, 2005). This issue does not just apply to California but several states as well. Parents want to know their children are secure at school and do not want to worry constantly about what might happen.  This will, of course, benefit the disabled students’ safety as well as their educational experiences.  The best way to avoid the issues of abuse is to choose carefully who the school hires to work in its special education department.  Not only that, but schools must also require prior training classes and a certain degree for teaching disabled children.

Overall, there are a variety of changes that special education programs can make to improve the quality of education.  One of the most necessary adjustments would be to increase funding for these types of programs, which would require the approval of the government.  It is also important to add more effective programs, such as music therapy to enrich students learning experiences. In addition, it is essential to ensure the safety of children and to give parents different ways to voice their opinions.  The aim of special education is to give these students—who live a life of hardship—the chance to experience the joys of learning, something that average students often take for granted.

 

References

Adapted [or Reprinted] from “ American Community Survey,” by U.S. Census Bureau, 2010,      Percentage of School-Aged Children With Disabilities Living in Metro Areas. 2010 by     Puerto Rico Community Survey. Adapted [or Reprinted] with permission.

Brault, M. W. (2011). School-aged children with disabilities in u.s. metropolitan statistical areas: 2012. Retrieved from https://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/acsbr10-12.pdf

Information on discipline of students with disabilities. (2005). Special Education Rights And         Responsibilities, Retrieved from http://www.disabilityrightsca.org/pubs/50    4001Ch08.pdf

Pellitteri, J. (2000). The consultant’s corner. Retrieved from             http://www.soundconnectionsmt.com/docs/Music Therapy in Special Education.pdf

Ronald M. Hager & Diane Smith, (2003). The public schools special education system as an          assistive technology funding source: The cutting edge. Retrieved from http://www.nls.org            /Disability/NYSAssistiveTechnologyProject/Archives/SpecialEdBooklet

U.S. Department of Justice. (2012, April 16). Information and technical assistance on the americans with disabilities act. Retrieved from http://www.ada.gov/cguide.htm

 

 

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Gifts for the Gifted

April 25, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Gifted Program, Public Education Programs

            The public school system has many children who learn at different levels.  Over the course of multiple years, public schools have developed ways to help every student.  Many public schools offer programs for students who have strong intellectual aptitude and are considered “gifted.”  These gifted programs are one of the countless benefits that the public school system has to offer.  The public school’s curriculums are very beneficial, because they provide the gifted student with a proper amount of education to excel in the future; the public school keeps students from being restricted, and it raises the students to a higher educational level.

One aspect of the gifted programs in public schools that makes it valuable to students is the quantity of education it provides.  Gifted programs are structured around the child’s intellect.  The structure then allows each student to receive the proper amount of schooling, giving him the opportunity to be at the top of the business world in the future.  In an article by J.H. Van Sickle, the superintendent of schools in Baltimore Maryland, he addresses this point explaining how, “Every child has a right to enough education to make him as useful as the limitation of his natural endowment will permit” (Van Sickle 1910).  The gifted programs offered by public schools help students to reach their full potential for the future.  The programs allow the gifted child’s intellect to grow and use his abilities to be functional in the workforce.  The gifted curriculums have continually grown and adapted, but they still focus on helping the student to be successful in the future.

The gifted courses offered by the public schools also prevent “gifted” students from being restricted by the regular curriculum.  Students with great intellectual aptitudes can often be held back by the normal program in schools.  Gifted students may learn at a quicker pace than the standard curriculum is based on, and the students would have to hold back their intellectual abilities to stay in the limits of the program. Van Sickle discusses in his research how gifted children “cannot profit by instruction as given under ordinary school conditions is undoubtedly in the right direction” (Van Sickle, 1910).    With the gifted programs, these talented students can learn at a more advanced pace.  With gifted programs, public schools are able to teach children with great intelligence at a pace that suits them better than the normal program.  In an article by the National Association for Gifted Children, it discusses how these gifted programs “match high level student general ability and specific talent with optimal learning opportunities” (2008).  Public schools take gifted students and figure out their learning abilities, and put them in a class that will optimize their learning opportunities.  Gifted programs help advanced students to receive the best opportunities by providing classes suited towards their abilities.

The final aspect that is vital to the beneficial gifted programs offered by the public school system is that it raises students to a higher level, pushing them to try harder in school.  The gifted programs drive students to try their best, and to learn more in their educational career.  As time progresses more students are raising themselves to a higher educational level, trying to gain more knowledge.  In a study done by the Gifted Development Center, the amount of gifted children in public schools was measured over the course of thirty years.

 

Table 1

Total

 IQ Testing in Children

Males above 160 IQ

Females above 160 IQ                                             

1979 –1989

94

89

183

1990 – 2009

507

298

805

1979 – 2009

601

387

988

 

Note.  The data on gifted children is from “IQ Testing in Children,” by Linda Silverman, 2013, http://www.gifteddevelopment.com/What_is_Gifted/learned.htm, 1, p.p. 8

As the gifted programs in public schools grow over the years, more students are challenged to do their best in academics, raising the number of gifted children in the public school system.

The public school system offers many benefits to students, such as gifted courses.  These programs provide students with the necessary amount of information as a way to free themselves from the pace of the normal curriculum. Also, the gifted programs push students to reach a higher educational level.  With these types of courses in place, public schools continually benefit students and better prepare them for the future.

 

References

Silverman, L., (2009).  IQ Testing in Childhood.  Gifted development center, 1.

Van Sickle, J. H. (1910). Provision for gifted children in public schools. The Elementary   School Teacher, 10(8), 357-366. doi: JSTOR

Why gifted and talented education is important. (2008). Retrieved from       http://www.nagc.org/index.aspx?id=533

 

 

 

 

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Climbing the Pyramid

April 21, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Public Education Programs

 

A world-renowned psychologist believed that some needs took precedence over others.  With this in mind, Abraham Moslow developed a hierarchy that placed primal necessities above any further desires: “at the base of this pyramid are our physiological needs, such as those for food and water; only if these needs are met are we prompted to meet our need for safety, and then to satisfy the uniquely human needs to give and receive love and to enjoy self-esteem” (Myers, 2007, p. 472).  An education requires each student to have the motivation to succeed, but self-actualization needs, or the aspiration to live up to one’s fullest and individual potential, reside at the highest attainable spot in Maslow’s hierarchy.  In order for a child to learn, he must have the resources required.  Unfortunately, not all children have access to these necessities, but public schools have instituted programs to help.

Nearly sixteen million children were living below the federal poverty line in 2012. (National Center for Children in Poverty, 2012)  With so many people struggling to keep their family fed and safe, their children’s education was not always a priority.  Fortunately, the government already has programs in place to help their children achieve in school.  To provide students with the energy to learn, the government has established a program that will ensure the basic needs of a student are met: “the National School Lunch Program is a federally assisted meal program operating in public schools… [which] provides nutritionally balanced, low-cost or free lunches to children each school day” (United States Department of Agriculture, 2012).  With this beneficial program, children living in poverty are one step closer to succeeding in school.

To conquer a few more levels of Maslow’s pyramid, schools have developed plans to provide the most stable and loving environment possible to a child living in destitution.  Through the McKinney-Vento Act, if a child loses his home and is forced to live in temporary housing– with relatives or at a homeless shelter –then, the school he originally attended will still allow him to enroll, even if he no longer lives in the district.  Additionally, the school will provide transportation to guarantee that the student is still able to continue earning his education.  With these accommodations, the McKinney-Vento Act has “saved lives and helped hundreds of thousands of Americans to regain stability” (National Coalition for the Homeless, 2006).  Providing them with a few more necessities, schools have helped students overcome their hardships.

Unfortunately, the costs of these programs place a heavy burden on public schools, especially with the recent downturn of the economy.  Since the stock market dropped in 2008, schools have seen a large increase– nearly five percent, in some cases –in the number of students needing assistance. (Weise & Weise, 2009)  The cost of these additional students has made it difficult for schools to maintain the positive programs that allow students to excel and places even greater stress on the school’s tight budget.  Luckily, public schools have recognized the value that these programs have to children living without the adequate resources to succeed and continue to support them.

Obstacles only make a person stronger if they have the basics to defeat it.  A child living in poverty only has the ability to succeed if programs within his school provide him with his fundamental needs.  Schools have risen to the occasion and allowed every child the opportunity to conquer the famous psychologist’s hierarchy; they allow him to climb the pyramid and flourish.

 

References

Myers, D. (2007). Psychology. Holland, MI: Worth Publishers.

Nation Center for Children in Poverty (2012). Child poverty. NCCP. Retrieved from

http://www.nccp.org/topics/childpoverty.html

National Coalition for the Homeless (2006, June). McKinney-Vento act. NCH. Retrieved from

http://www.nationalhomeless.org/publications/facts/McKinney.pdf

United States Department of Agriculture (2012, June 6). National school lunch program. USDA.

Retrieved from http://www.fns.usda.gov/cnd/lunch/

Weise, E., & Weise, P. (2009, June 10). School systems juggle cost of free lunch. USA Today.

Retrieved from http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/education/2009-06-10-schoollunchinside_N.htm

 

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The Status of Gifted Education Funding in the United States

April 21, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Gifted Program, Public Education Programs

 

Gifted children are children who learn at an accelerated pace or at a higher level than their average peers. If properly nurtured and educated, the potential of these children is enormous. However, these children are often overlooked and underfunded. Gifted education is a section of special education, except rather than falling below standards, gifted students exceed them (O’Connell, 2012). Although it is special education, recent legislation, such as the No Child Left Behind Act has shifted the focus of education to bringing up the bottom of the educational spectrum, leaving the gifted students with far less appropriated funds and resources to operate on. In some cases, there is no funding for gifted education whatsoever. Overall, the funding of gifted education in the United States is far less than ideal.

One of the most significant problems facing gifted education in the United States is that very few recognize the magnitude of its importance. According to Scott O’Connell of the Metrowest Daily News, if gifted children are not adequately educated and provided for, they are: “prone to underachievement, depression and, in the worst-case scenario, high school dropout status” (O’Connell 2012). Unfortunately, many gifted children are inadequately handled. For example: “the federal government provides only two cents of every hundred dollars spent on education to gifted children” (Lichtenwalter, 2011). With so little federal funding, most of the burden falls upon the state. However, the states do not effectively shoulder the burden of the funding and education of gifted students either. Some states have little gifted funding, while others have no gifted funding at all. The following graphic exemplifies the dire situation of funding for exceptional students:

adam graph 1

Figure 1. Level of gifted education funding by state in the United States. Adapted from: Davidson Institute for Talent Development. (2013). Gifted Education State Policies. Copyright 2013 by the Davidson Institute for Talent Development. Adapted with permission.

The above graph shows that gifted education is only mandated and fully funded by the state in four states. By contrast, there are 17 states in which no gifted funding is provided by the state. The remaining states are either not mandated to have gifted programs or are only partially funded by the state. This severe funding issue puts many gifted and talented students at risk of not reaching their full potential. When gifted students do not reach their full potential, their futures as well as the future of the country are put at risk. The children in the gifted education programs throughout the United States are the children who will become the doctors, lawyers, scientists, and leaders of the next generation.

Educational funding is a tricky issue. There is very little to go around as it is, and the money that remains after the educational essentials is a very small amount. However, the money that is left over after the essentials are paid for is misappropriated. The children with the greatest potential are given the least amount of attention and funding. When the geniuses of the current generation are neglected, the future of the country is put at risk. Those who can solve tomorrow’s problems have not been adequately prepared to do so. In order to prepare the doctors, lawyers, presidents and astrophysicists of the future, the government must provide the necessary funding to allow the sharpest tools in the shed to be used to their full potential. Gifted funding is not a drain on valuable government resources, it is an investment in the future of the country, helping to develop the bright minds of today into the lights that lead the world to a better, smarter future.

 

 

References

Davidson Institute for Talent Development. (2013). Gifted Education State Policies.         Retrieved February 18, 2013, from:     http://www.davidsongifted.org/db/StatePolicy.aspx

Lichtenwalter, S. (2011, January 4). The necessity of increased funding for gifted education and more training for teachers in charge of identifying gifted students.      Essai, 25. Retrieved from http://dc.cod.edu/essai/vol8/iss1/25

O’Connell, S. (2012, May 27). Gifted education funding falling short on high achievers. The Metrowest Daily News. Retrieved from            http://www.metrowestdailynews.com/news/x1040014450/Gifted-education-          funding-falling-short-on-high-achievers?zc_p=0

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The Educational Experience

April 21, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Public Vs. Private, School Structure

Public schools and private schools are called such for an obvious reason. The terms immediately inform one of which institutions have open doors, and which have a secret password. Alone, these terms place the systems on opposite sides of the spectrum; however, there is also the number one similarity shown between the two: education. No matter which side a family chooses, the children are going to learn one way or another. Nevertheless, one vital question still lingers in the air: which school is better? Honestly, it is difficult to say exactly what school system is superior. Nevertheless, students of any background can find an excellent education at public schools.

Because public schools are open to nearly anyone in the community, families with disabled children are more likely to attend there. Private schools usually require a placement test to enter the school, as well as a hefty tuition fee. Families who have children with special needs are often “faced with paying for therapies themselves, or making the most of what is provided through public programs” (Interactive Autism Network, 2008), so the idea of sending their children to a private school is usually out of the equation. With this in mind, numerous public schools offer various therapies and aids to these students in hopes of lightening the parents’ loads. The Interactive Autism Network (IAN) Community studied the trends of families with autistic children and revealed that the majority of these families attend public schools.

eva graph 1

Figure 1. Percentage of children with ASD that attend a particular type of school. Total number of children: 5,935.

There are specific private schools for disabled children; however, public schools tend to show more progressive and effective methods of teaching. In fact, for every school in the U.S., “federal law mandates that every child receives a free and appropriate education in the least restrictive environment possible” (AACAP, 2011). Although private schools can be specialized for disabled children, public schools relieve most of the stresses that come with admission obstacles because they are, by definition, open to the public.

Aside from accessibility, a common misconception is that students who attend private schools do better on state tests. This is not always the case. Because private schools pick their students individually, they usually choose the best children, and this is what makes the school’s performance so impressive. Conversely, public schools are obligated to enroll anyone, so their rankings tend to seem lower in comparison. Yet, if both schools had the same type of student body, which one would seem more superior? Analyzed in the 2003 NAEP math test results, if demographics and location of the communities were taken into consideration, public school fourth-graders performed better, if not similarly, than private school fourth-graders.

eva graph 2

Figure 2. Test scores from different types of private schools compared to the public school average (represented by the red line). The difference of ten points equals about one grade level.

Based on the data collected from this and other studies, it has become clear that public schools and private schools are not completely distinct from one another. The factors that lead to these statistics range from specific teaching methods to community settings, which, by nature, vary from school to school. If private schools had the same aspects as public schools, the difference would not be so definite. At a glance, private schools seem like superb places to send a child to for a solid education; but up close, public schools also provide exceptional learning environments.

Due to the multitude of student aids and efficient settings in public schools, private schools are not as superior as they seem. Private districts are great for specific learning experiences, but public schools are tremendous places for children to study diverse lessons. Truthfully, the fight over which school is greater will not end for many years, and this generation may not find a solid answer. As of now, all anyone can do is analyze what is better for his or her children, and send them down a path that suits them best.

 

References

AACAP (March 2011). Services in School for Children with Special Needs: What Parents Need To Know. Retrieved from http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/facts_for_families/services_in_school_for_children_with_special_needs_what_parents_need_to_know

Drum, K. (January 28, 2006). Public vs. Private. Washington Monthly. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonmonthly.com/archives/individual/2006_01/008101.php

Interactive Autism Network: IAN Community (August 25, 2008). IAN “Back to School” Report. Kennedy Krieger Institute. Retrieved from http://www.iancommunity.org/cs/ian_research_reports/back_to_school_2008

 

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Art Benefits in Public Education

April 21, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Fine Arts, Public Education Programs

Arts education has been a part of the public education system since education was established. Recently, however, there has been a dismaying decrease in arts education as more emphasis is placed on core curriculums such as math and English. This decline is a loss for students as research has found that incorporating the arts into education helps to improve what Fran Smith calls: “motivation, concentration, confidence, and teamwork” (Smith, 2009) in schools. Art involvement is also associated with “gains in math, reading, cognitive ability, critical thinking, and verbal skill” (Smith, 2009). In this day and age, where test scores are decreasing, as evidenced in The Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice’s analysis of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) Long-Term Trend exam (as cited in Klein, 2012), while demands for better results are increasing, what public education needs is not more funding or extra emphasis on reading and math, but further integration of arts in the curriculum. Therefore, authorities should be making good investments in public education by incorporating arts education rather than spending more time, money, effort, and attention on core curriculums like math and English.

Studies, like those done by the Department of Education, have shown that arts integration helps students, especially those of low socioeconomic status, to improve their comprehension and long-term retention of learned material. The National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) has also used such studies to formalize their research report on the “potential benefits of arts education for at-risk youth” (Gifford, 2012). The reason arts integration yields such good results is because it utilizes teaching practices that are based on brain research. Because the arts, according to Eisner, are “typically process-driven and relationship based” (as cited in Fact Sheet About the Benefits of Arts Education for Children), they offset the easy-to-measure standardized testing. The arts play an important role in improving the learning abilities of students because they employ a wide range of what Gardener calls: “intelligences and learning styles, not just the linguistic and logical-mathematical intelligences upon which most schools are based” (as cited in Fact Sheet About the Benefits of Arts Education for Children). By teaching the students various ways of approaching a subject, the children learn to be more creative in their thinking, and their problem solving skills improve.

Arts education teaches students the importance of cultivating creativity and innovation. It “encourages [in a fun way] healthy risk taking, helps kids recognize new skills in themselves and others, provides a way to differentiate instruction, builds collaboration among both students and teachers, bridges differences, and draws in parents and the community” (Nobori, 2012). In addition, having an arts education, according to the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) press release, is also said to be related to “better academic outcomes, higher career goals and higher levels of civic engagement” (as cited in Ni, 2012). Americans for the Arts, a non-profit organization for advancing the arts in America, has also compiled a booklet presenting statistics on how beneficial the arts are to education.

ariel graph 1

 

Figure 1: Visual of Percentages. Adapted from “Facts & Figures.” Copyright 2013 by Americans for the Arts. Adapted with permission.


ariel graph 2

Figure 2: Visual of Statistics. Adapted from “Facts and Figures.” Copyright 2013 by Americans for the Arts. Adapted with permission.

The data from these charts indicate that the arts are motivating students. This is a significant discovery because in learning, motivation is key. If the students do not enjoy their classes, they are less likely to be motivated to finish their education. Dropping out of school may result in financial success for a select few, but for most students, dropping out of school means inevitable financial destruction in the future. Time and time again, society has shown that those who have either an incomplete high school education or have only a high school education tend to have lower socio-economical statuses, jobs that pay less, and a lower standard of living. That is why, with America’s national test scores as they are now, more arts education in public school curriculums would improve these statistics. If arts integration can help encourage students to learn more and achieve higher goals, then, is it not worth a try? The answer is yes; arts integration is definitely a plausible solution to the current educational crisis. Therefore, because arts education is such a boon to schooling, it should be increasingly incorporated in the curriculum. In any case, the benefits of arts integration are not theoretical; they have actually been proven to work well in the public schools that have woven the arts and standard curriculum together. For example, Maryland’s Bates Middle School has adopted an increased arts education in their curriculum and has seen its students’ test scores and classroom participation soar (Nobori, 2012). Hence, arts education is a possible option that should be looked into as a solution to the current academic crises of America.

While learning, it is vital to have fun. If the students are not enjoying themselves, how can they pay attention and retain class material? Arts integration of school curriculum will not only make the students’ classes more engaging and, most of all, fun, but will also assist in the facilitation of learning and retaining information. Besides, engagement is linked with boosted academic growth and improved discipline (Nobori, 2012). Therefore, arts education is a viable teaching method that may be a helpful solution to the current academic crisis. If arts integration can help students achieve the higher expectations, then why not invest in ways in which they can both learn and have fun? That way, it is a win-win situation for everyone; parents, teachers and other concerned authorities will have the advanced academic progress they are looking for, and students will gain the benefits of arts education.

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Americans for the Arts. (2013). Facts & figures. Washington: Retrieved from

http://issuu.com/americans4arts/docs/afta_navigator_facts-and-figures/30

Americans for the Arts (2013). Visual of Percentages. “Facts & Figures,” pp. 7.

Americans for the Arts (2013). Visual of Statistics. “Facts & Figures,” pp. 7.

Fact Sheet about the Benefits of Arts Education for Children. (n.d.). Retrieved from

http://www.artsusa.org/get_involved/advocacy/funding_resources/default_005.asp

Gifford, S. National Endowment for the Arts · an independent federal agency, (2012). New NEA

Research Report shows Potential Benefits of Arts Education for At-Risk Youth. Retrieved from website: http://www.nea.gov/news/news12/Arts-At-Risk-Youth.html

Klein, F. (2012, November 26). Test scores decline despite increased education spending.

Retrieved from http://www.americanlegislator.org/2012/11/test-scores-decline-despite-increased-education-spending/

Ni, K. (2012, 4 14). Arts Education Benefits Public School Students. Epoch Times. Retrieved

from http://www.theepochtimes.com/n2/united-states/arts-education-benefits-public-school-students-220167.html

Nobori, M. (2012, 8 29). How The Arts Unlock the Door to Learning. Retrieved from

http://www.edutopia.org/stw-arts-integration-reform-overview

Smith, F. (2009, 1 28). Why Arts Education is Crucial, and Who’s Doing It Best. Retrieved from

http://www.edutopia.org/arts-music-curriculum-child-development

Pogrebin, R. (2007, 8 4). Arts Education Benefits Public School Students. New York Times.

Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2007/08/04/arts/design/04stud.html?_r=0

Ruppert, S. S. (2006). Critical Evidence: How the Arts Benefit Student Achievement. National

Assembly of State Arts Agencies in collaboration with the Arts Education Partnership. Retrieved from http://www.nasaa-arts.org/Research/Key-Topics/Arts-Education/critical-evidence.pdf

 

 

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Innovative Teaching

April 21, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Public Education Programs, Technology

 

Classroom-based teaching, textbooks, and blackboards have all been conventions of public school in America for centuries. Even today, in an age where the possibilities of creativity are endless, and new technology has changed the way we approach even the simplest tasks, these outdated items still remain in schools. At a time when student success in Asian and European countries is beginning to challenge the achievement of American students, it is apparent that a change must be made to the existing educational system in this country. Using successful trials of innovative teaching in other countries as examples, the United States can begin integrating technology and non-conventional methods of learning into school curriculums. This transition to relevant and more effective teaching techniques will not only improve student understanding of course content and increase test scores, but it will also prepare students to think abstractly about the world around them and will establish the United States as one of the world’s leading countries in public education.

From 2010 to 2012, there were a series of experimental studies in Australia intended to improve scientific literacy of high school students and encourage them to view science as an enjoyable and creative field. The Biostories Project, as the venture was called, merged the previously separate concepts of narrative writing and scientific research. Louisa Tomas, one of the project’s researchers, writes in her article that “situating students’ writing in the context of a socioscientific issue enhances the relevance of the learning activities and offers students an opportunity to explore societal issues and problems with conceptual links to science and technology” (Tomas, 2012). By writing creative stories about scientific topics, students can incorporate aspects of their own experiences into their work and gain a better understanding of the subject matter.

The results of the studies provided evidence of significant improvement in comprehension and enjoyment of the curriculum over the course of the project. Scientific literacy was evaluated through the Biostories, which were written by students before and after the project, and compared. Tomas reports that students “were able to verbalize their understandings in conversations about their stories [and]…could recall or explain concepts two to six weeks after completing the final writing task…” (Tomas, 2012). After completing The Biostories Project, students could apply their newly acquired knowledge to issues that are relevant today, such as biosecurity and environmental conservation. The project was a major success, proving that non-conventional methods of learning could equal, if not surpass, the conventional classroom system.

Those who possess an opposing viewpoint might argue that the educational system should not abandon the tried-and-tested way of teaching, which has seemed to work perfectly since this country’s founding. After all, some of the brightest minds in the history of the United States were educated this way. In her article, Nicole Smith criticizes online classes, a very progressive form of teaching, claiming that they remove the social aspect from student’s education: “Online classrooms lack the ability to be personalized and will have a negative impact on both the social and educational lives of their students” (Smith, 2011). Although students who take online classes do not receive the face-to-face instruction that is offered in a traditional classroom, this does not hinder their ability to succeed in their academic studies. In fact, a study by the East Carolina University, in which 23 students were enrolled in a traditional class and 24 students were enrolled in the corresponding online course with the same instructor, course material, and assignments, showed that the students who took the online course earned a higher grade than their classroom counterparts (Tucker, 2001). While the classroom method is certainly not detrimental to student success, one cannot challenge the fact that the world is constantly changing, and that this change leads to new advancements in science and technology. In order to accommodate the new expectations of the job market, education must keep up with the times and encourage students to embrace technology and learn to master it for the future.

Countries around the world are beginning to integrate innovative teaching methods into their school curriculums and, as a result, are excelling in student achievement. The Biostories Project demonstrates the effectiveness of this ground-breaking movement, and proves that progress is imperative. Whether schools will encourage students to solve problems using technology, or will begin to incorporate abstract activities into lesson plans, it is apparent that education will change in the future. In order for the United States not to fall behind in the world arena, it must accept this change and fully embrace it. The curriculums of our schools must be completely renovated to include current and useful material that is applicable to real life scenarios. When this occurs, American students will excel in school and gain the knowledge needed to be successful in a competitive world.

 

References:

Smith, N. (2011, Dec. 15). In defense of the traditional classroom: An argument against the move to online classes. Retrieved from http://www.articlemyriad.com/argument-traditional-classroom-online/.

Tomas, L. (2012). Writing narratives about a socioscientific issue: Engaging students and learning science. Teaching Science: The Journal Of The Australian Science Teachers Association, 58(4), 24-28.

Tucker, S. (2001). Distance education: Better, worse, or as good as traditional education? Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, 4(4). Retrieved from http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/winter44/tucker44.html.

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The Perks and Downfalls of Uniforms

April 21, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles

 

In the American society, a person’s personality or rank can be seen through the garments that he wears. The clothes on someone’s back can make the difference in getting a career and getting into a college. This poses a debate in public schools about whether to let the personality of the student shine or require schools to have uniforms, to make everyone the same.

With all the positives of uniforms, there are many negatives. Uniforms take away a student’s right for free expression, and to show off his or her personality. In an article in The Journal of Negro Education, the writers state: “One primary argument espoused by the opponents of uniforms is that public schools’ interfere with the students’ right to choose their dress—a violation of the students’ First Amendment right of free speech” (Mitchell, 2003). This violation of students’ rights is a major factor in the debate over uniforms.

They can also bring up issues with women’s rights activists, who say that some uniforms are sexist. The requirement of female students to wear skirts is very controversial. In a newspaper article in Off Our Books, the author discusses this debate in schools in New York: “There are enough problems with sexual harassment in school and we should not make it worse [by requiring girls to wear skirts]” (“Sexism and School Uniforms”, 1998). The regulations for the use of uniforms, such as females having to wear skirts and males having to wear pants, goes against many of the beliefs of feminism. By implementing school uniforms officials are taking away from a students’ right to express themselves.

However, sexist and formal uniforms are they do pose a solution to many social problems students have. Many students are judged by their appearance. To solve this dilemma of persecution for one’s attire, uniforms seem to be an adequate solution. When implemented in some schools, uniforms have positively affected the student’s academic life. In an article by Marian Wilde, a reporter on schools, she states: “A 2005 study…indicates that in some Ohio high schools uniforms may have improved graduation and attendance rates, although no improvements were observed in academic performance” (Marian, 2013). These improvements contribute to the fact that the students do not have to worry about what they wear. In 1996, President Clinton agreed with the use of uniforms in public schools stating: “If it means teenagers will stop killing each other over designer jackets, then our public schools should be able to require their students to wear school uniforms” (Marian, 2013). Uniforms are seen as a guiding light in the fight to improve public schools for students.

Wearing uniforms may seem to be an easy fix for many issues in public education. However, implementing a dress code will not solve problems, instead it will create more. Regulated school attire takes away personal rights and can be sexist towards women. The disadvantages of uniforms outweigh the positives.

 

References

Mitchell, W. H., & Knechtle, C. J. (2003). Uniforms in Public Schools and the First Amendment: A Constitutional Analysis. The Journal of Negro Education, 72(4), 487-494. JSTOR. Retrieved from: http://www.jstor.org/stable

Wilde, M. (2013). Do uniforms make schools better. Great Schools, 1.

 (1998 April). Sexism and School Uniforms. Off Our Backs, Vol. 28, No. 4. Retrieved from: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20836035

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A State Of Mind: How Are Public Schools Helping Treat Mental Disorders?

April 18, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Health

 

The world is changing, and with it, more and more kids in America are being diagnosed with mental, emotional, and behavioral disorder. Research has shown that about one in every five kids has some sort of mental disorder, and one in ten kids suffer from a serious emotional problem (Koppelman, 2004, p.2). These children suffer even more from peer’s reactions, teachers that do not know how to handle their problems and stress from school or home; it is no wonder that the drop-out rate of these children reaches about forty-five percent. Private school can turn these tormented children away, so that they will not blacken the name of their schools. By law though, public schools are required to accept special needs kids. Public schools have help student who have mental disorders do well in school, and help them to work around their disorder.

Kids with disorders face lots of different problems. First, not all children with mental or emotional disorders are being treated. Even if these kids have a mild disorder, they can be isolated by their peers as weird or different. Child psychologist, Richard Mattison, says that “just about anyone would notice and say something is wrong with these [ones with disorders] children…the key is that they’re very dysfunctional in school and at home,” (Koppelman, 2004, p.7). Because it can be rather easy to spot these kids – even if the reason for the kid’s difference is unknown to the peers – they can become subjects of bullying. This negative attention wears down on the kids or pushes them into depression. It is not only the peers who can have a negative effect but also some teachers as well. If a teacher does not know how to handle a certain situation, they might become frustrated with the child. Not all parents give the support the child needs as well. With all this and their disorder playing with their minds, children have a hard time focusing on school; it is very common for a child with a disorder to have low grades. Added together this become just too much for teenagers, so the end results are doing poorly in class.

Teenagers who have mental or emotional disorders are extremely likely to develop a substance abuse problem as well.

Figure 1

Mood & Anxiety Disorders among Respondents with Marijuana Dependence

cassie graph 1

Note. The data on disorders in Marijuana dependence adapted from “Mood & Anxiety Disorders among Respondents with Marijuana Dependence,” from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2011.

Kids with disorders see the drugs as a way to escape their miserable lives, and slowly, drug addiction can be added to the list of problems they face. Also, it was found that “between sixty and seventy percent of children in the juvenile Justine system have a psychiatric disorder” (Koppelman, 2004, p.2).

There are many different levels of disorders from mild impairment to serious impairment.

Figure 2

Severity of Children’s Disorders (Ages 9-17)

cassie graph 2

Note. The data on the severity of disorders in children from “Severity of Children’s Disorders (Ages 9-17)” U.S department of Health and Human Services, 1999.

Not all people with mental, emotional, or behavioral disorders need to be placed in a separate, special education classroom; if a student has a mild disorder, then he or she can work in a regular classroom, with help of medication or therapy. Even untreated, students with mild disorders can graduate and create a life for themselves as long as they get support from family and friends. Students with moderate disorders also have the capability to succeed in a normal classroom. A teacher can help a student with an anxiety disorder by not putting too much pressure on them or by not turning the classes focus on that individual. If someone from the school is having regular commutation meetings with the student’s parent, then he or she can give the child support from both home and school. The major problem schools face are with the kids who have serious disorders. About fifty percent of all high school drop-outs with disabilities have major disorder problems. These children need therapy, intense monitoring in school, medication and more.

School is a major part of any youth’s life. Many people spend a minimum of seven to eight hours a day at school, so school can become a major break or make point in these children’s lives. Whether a child has a mild disorder or a severe one, many depend on public school programs in order to get help. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (2004) states that each “state has established a goal of providing full educational opportunity to all children with disabilities.” Although the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) deal mainly with physical disabilities and emotional disturbance, it gives kids the right to go to a public school and receive a full education regardless of their condition. Many children with severe mental disorders can fall into the category of emotional disturbance and can receive the benefits from it. IDEA is not the only place that help is coming from. Lots of schools across America have connections with the local mental health offices, so that if a student is in need of a psychologist, or help in a classroom, and then he or she has access to them. These programs do not just help kids with mental or emotional problems, but problems every day high school students might have such as bully, lack of self-esteem and more. There are many different types of people on a school’s campus who are designed to help students with mental disorders.

Figure 3

Selected Professions That May Provide School Mental Health Services

 

casssie graph 3

 

Note. Data on School Professions from “Selected Professions That May Provide School Mental Health Services” Government Accountability Office, 2005.

These providers can help with different problems that a student with a disorder might be going through and the different severities that can appear. Also, school providers do not help with just mental or emotional disorders but anyone who wishes to speak with them.

When people become diagnosed with a mental, emotional, or behavioral disorder their lives becomes very hard for them. Their troubles worsen with pressure from peers and sometimes, teachers or parents. Luckily, many public schools have programs set up in order to improve these people’s lives.

 

 

References

Koppelman, Jane. June 4 2004. Children with Mental Disorders: Making Sense of their needs and the System that Helps Them.  Retrieved from http://www.nhpf.org/library/issue-briefs/IB799_ChildMentalHealth.pdf

National Institute on Drug Abuse (2011). Mood & Anxiety Disorders among Respondents with Marijuana Dependence. http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/topics-in-brief/marijuana

U.S department of Health and Human Services (1999). Severity of Children’s Disorders (Ages 9-17).

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To Wear or Not to Wear

April 17, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Uniforms

 

To wear, or not to wear is the question of whether to implement school uniforms into the educational systems around the country. School uniforms were first introduced to the public in Long Beach, California in 1994. As the first school district to test them, the Long Beach Unified School District required 60,000 students to wear the uniform (Steinhauser, 2013). Since then, mandated uniforms have been implemented in both private and public schools across the country. They have helped make private and public schools more prestigious, and the results can be beneficial towards a child’s education. The disputes regarding the implementation of uniforms in public schools have displayed both the positive and negative effects and have been the subject of school board debates numerous times. Uniforms are a set of standardized clothes that the school board dictates what the students are required to wear. They improve the well being of the school, are cost efficient for parents, and improve a students’ academic performance. On the other hand, there are some drawbacks of the uniform that makes schools think twice before implementing them into their educational system. To wear, or not to wear is the question.

Educators are mandating a rule stating all students must wear the school uniform as part of a strategy to maintain student safety and control over schools. Firstly, the thought of incorporating slacks and blazers into the schools would reduce bullying and school violence (Clark, 2007). In a society where the girls are ruthless, and the boys are judgmental on a girl’s appearance, uniforms can act as an opening to a social barrier and discrimination. According to the U.S. Department of Education, 90 percent of teachers agree that the implementation of uniforms has addressed the peer pressure issue of “fitting in” by wearing specific brands (2012). An estimated 30 percent of students in the United States are involved in some form of bullying. Because bullying is steadily increasing, many educators and administrators are constantly on the search for ways to decrease and eventually eliminate the problem. There is a reduction in the potential for harassment based on differences between economic standing among students as evidenced by their manner of dress.

Converting to school board-regulated clothing would also be beneficial, as uniforms are cost efficient. With fewer clothes necessary for everyday wear, the uniform policy allows families to save money, which many parents enjoy. Wearing a school uniform will provide security and equality among the students. There will not be distinctions in class based on the child’s economic status as judged by the brand names. Therefore, according to Great Schools, a non-profit organization dedicated to guiding parents, the implementation of uniforms can diminish the economic and social barriers between students (Wilde, 2010).

faith graph

Figure 1. This figure shows test scores for math, reading, and language along with attendance rates and disciplinary infractions both before and after uniform adoption. Prior to uniform adoption, both test scores and discipline are relatively low. Adapted from “Teenage Dress Codes: Easier Said Than Done” by K. Dell’Antonia, 2012. 2012. Reprinted with permission.

After implementing school uniforms in the Long Island district, studies show academia improves as the time passes. Academic performance increases as multiple private and public schools have demonstrated excellent standardized test scores and produced National Merit Scholars. Additionally, more feel safe at school as the attendance exponentially increases. School administrations underline that wearing uniforms has positive effects on academic success and behavior of the students: “In the United States today, twenty three percent of all public and private school students are obligated to wear uniforms” (Imberman, 2009). The school uniform allows the students to direct their focus towards academics as hard work has been shown through the statistics. Private schools have been thriving with uniforms, and if more public schools adopt the same policy, they will undoubtedly reap the same benefits.

However, sociologists argue that there are also certain drawbacks of a compulsory uniform system in schools. They stifle individuality as school uniforms take away students’ freedom of expression. As uniforms force students to conform in dress, limiting the imagination can create a rebellion. In 1969, the first court ruling regarding school uniforms was related to this issue. When two high school students in Des Moines, Iowa wore black armbands to school to protest the Vietnam War, they were suspended and sent home until the armbands were removed. The families of the students filed a complaint, and the case, called Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District, went to the Supreme Court. The Court ruled in the students’ favor and emphasized students’ rights to free speech, stating that, “A prohibition against expression of opinion, without any evidence that the rule is necessary to avoid substantial interference with school discipline or the rights of others, is not permissible under the First and Fourteenth Amendments” (Fortas, 1969). Many parents and administrators believe that school uniforms are in conflict with this fundamental right. This famous Supreme Court Case was a decision that defined the constitutional rights of students in United States public schools. A test is still used by courts today to determine whether a school’s disciplinary actions violate students’ right to the First Amendment. The Tinker Test establishes students’ First Amendment rights. In its ruling, it was decided school officials can no longer challenge student expression simply based on their own bias, fear, or apprehension of disturbance.

School uniforms can potentially be beneficial or nonessential, which makes for a very controversial issue. Many public and private schools have taken active measures and enforced mandatory slacks and blazers, which were found to be helpful by combating peer pressure and reducing cost of clothing for families. Uniforms will help solve many issues inside and outside the school walls. For the students, uniforms will help eliminate the everyday worries of trying to fit in with other students; parents will not have to deal with the financial stress of buying fashionable and expensive clothes, and teachers will have an advantage with providing a more adequete learning environment with students more focused on their education, rather than what they are wearing to school. However, the uniform policy can potentially violate a student’s right to freedom of expression. The question still rings in the ears of the public today as the issue is brought up. Cons and pros are weighed as the boards of education wonder: to wear, or not to wear the school uniform.

 

References:

Clark, L. (2007, July). School uniform improves pupils’ behaviour . Daily Mail. Retrieved from                  http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-467353/School-uniform-improves-pupils-behaviour-school.html

Dell’Antonia, KJ. (2012). Teenage Dress Codes: Easier Said Than Done. The New York Times.Retrieved from: http://parenting.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/09/13/teenag-dress-codes-   easier-said-than-done/

Fortas, Justice. “No. 21 SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES 393 U.S. 503.” bc.edu.Strata Publishing Inc, Web. 7 Apr 2013.                                                                                            <http://www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/cas/comm/free_speech/tinker.html>.

Imberman, Scott. Dressed for Success: Do School Uniforms Improve Student Behavior,Attendance, and Achievement? MS thesis. University of Houston, 2009.             <http://www.uh.edu/econpapers/RePEc/hou/wpaper/2009-03.pdf>.

Leibowitz. A. (1996). NY Daily News. Retrieved from: http://articles.nydailynews.com/1996-03  -07/news/18004791_1_uniforms-safe-school-graduate-students

Steinhauser, D. (2009). Long beach school uniforms. Retrieved from                                                          http://www.lbusd.k12.ca.us/uniforms/article_1.cfm

US Department of Education (2012). Statistic Brain. Retrieved from:                                                         http://www.statisticbrain.org/schoo    -uniform-statistics/

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Which Decision is Best?

April 17, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Public Vs. Private, School Structure

 

When it comes to choosing a school that will prepare a child for his future, parents consider every option. Parents of disabled or special needs children, especially, explore schools with extra precaution; they analyze their selections of schools that will address their child’s special needs. Every decision is narrowed down to the benefits and disadvantages of public and private schooling. While private schools appear to be specialized for every student, a single curriculum does not fit all. Public schools provide a better environment to special needs students because they expose students to real world experiences and situations.

The opinions that matter the most are ultimately those of the parents. While researching and visiting multiple public and private schools, Jane Schoenfeld, a concerned mother of a special needs child, observed the differences between the assistance that could be offered to her special needs daughter. It is vital that her daughter feels comfortable in an environment and is free to express herself. One of Schoenfeld’s biggest concerns is making sure her daughter feels accepted and never isolated. She observed an advantage to public schools during her numerous school tours: “Public school teachers were accustomed to handling a greater variety of needs… it was important for any child, especially one with special needs, to grow up in an environment that reflected the one in which she would be living” (Schoenfeld 2008). Public schools provide a variety of help to a diverse community of students so that every child feels comfortable and capable of achieving goals. If children with special needs attend a private school, they could be put under monitoring that restricts them to reach their full potential to learn. Furthermore, many students are not able to meet one-on-one with advisors and can become lost. Schoenfeld found that a private school did not provide the assurance, or the capacity, to aid her special needs daughter.

Typically, public schools contain more students than private schools, so students with disabilities are thought to receive an improper amount of attention by staff members. It is assumed that faculty members cannot focus all of their time with special needs students; the school as a unit is more important to focus on. Although, James Walsh, a former director of Special Education in Howard County Public Schools, states the relationship between the number of students enrolled and amount of staff: “Our staffing isn’t based on the size of the school but on the number of hours of service needed by the students in that school” (Walsh 2006). When more students are admitted into a public school’s special education program, they are assessed to determine the amount of assistance they will require during the school year. Public schools do not hire more staff with every new student; instead, they consider a child’s needs and address them accordingly. Choosing an unrestrictive, comfortable, and accommodating environment is a fundamental decision that is considered by hundreds of parents with special needs children.

When it comes to selecting a school for one’s own child, no parent wants to begin the journey too eagerly. Exploring options is the most important step to take throughout this journey. One should scrutinize the structures and assistance provided by different schools while making a decision. The environments of public schools offer real-world aspects to students that they could not experience in a private school facility. Private schools have become known for handing opportunities to affluent students on a silver platter, but, public schools urge students to reach for their goals; students must work in order to obtain their own skills for the future. The difference between being accustomed to success and working for it is the same difference that arises in the real world.

 

 

References

Schoenfeld, J.(2008). Public School or Private School? One Family’s Journey.        Exceptional Parent, 38(9), 12-13.

Walsh , J.(2006). Public or Private? What each has to offer your special needs child.          Chesapeake Family.

 

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Positives of Extra-Curricular Activities

April 17, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Public Education Programs

 

Throughout the nation, thousands of schools have increased their student body involvement through the addition of extracurricular activities. Whether it is a club or a sport, one can see the impact that these activities have on not only on school spirit but also academic performance. Also, students can use these activities to help ensure acceptance into college. Some students may even receive a full scholarship depending on how talented they are. Extracurricular activities can benefit students for both the present and the future.

Extracurricular activities have shown a substantial impact on the overall academic performance of the student body. Involvement in extracurricular activities can help increase a student’s level of self-esteem and provide him/her with a positive outlook on school. According to Erin Massoni, author of The Positive Effects of Extra Curricular Activities on Students: “Participation in an after school program that is designed to build self esteem, has positive effects on standards test scores in math and reading, while receiving extended time to complete homework does not have the same positive effects on self esteem or achievements” (2011). The boosted self-esteem that an after school program can offer is essential to the overall performance of the student.

Participation in extracurricular activities has also shown positive effects on a student’s GPA. Students have a greater chance of academic success if they are currently participating in any form of extracurricular activities. According to Erin Massoni, “students who participate in extracurricular activities are three times more likely to have a grade point average of a 3.0 or higher. This is higher than students who did not participate in extracurricular activities” (2011). It has been scientifically proven that sports and other physical activity have positive effects on the brain, thus, assisting students in reaching academic achievement. Sudhir Sinha, author of The Effects of Extracurricular Activities on the Academic Achievement of Seventh and Eighth Graders, stated: “Youth receiving additional physical activity tend to show improved attributes such as increased brain functioning, higher energy/concentration levels, higher self-esteem, and better behavior which may all support cognitive learning” (2005). Extracurricular activities play a major role in helping students perform their best in school.

Extracurricular activities help improve a student’s performance in public school, as well as provide students with future benefits. One of the most obvious rewards is the prestigious full scholarship that everyone works hard to earn. Students who participate in extracurricular activities have a better chance of being accepted into the college of their choice because they are a “well-rounded student.” According to Joy Burgess, a writer for More 4 Kids: “Most colleges not only look at grades, but they also take a look at extracurricular activities that students are involved in while they are in high school” (2009). Although colleges want to see that students are performing well in the classroom, they also like students who participated in various clubs and activities.

Students who engage in extracurricular activities will be better prepared for life because of the many skills that they learned from clubs and sports. Joy Burgess also states: “Allowing your child to get involved in extracurricular activities at school is a wise choice, and it can be very important in helping them to develop many working skills, people skills, and more” (2009). Working skills and people skills are essential tools that can impress many employers, and by learning them in high school students are both: better prepared for the real working world and more likely to be hired. There is a greater chance of success in college and in the workforce if a student participates in an extracurricular activity. The discipline and responsibility that was expected in the club will stay with them for future obstacles. According to I Have a Plan Iowa:

Overall, students who participate in extracurricular activities will likely see an improvement in their academic and life skills, including discipline, goal-setting, teamwork, accountability and responsibility. They will also find themselves better prepared for post-secondary education. Ultimately, students may even discover that the lessons they learned outside the classroom, in basketball or chess club, help them cope with future challenges in the workplace (2009).

Students who engage in these activities have a better chance of being victorious in college and in the workplace. Not only do extracurricular activities help students in school, but they also provide students with necessary tools that will bring them future success.

Extracurricular activities have displayed many good results, but there are some people who would beg to differ. It is a given that if a student participates in an after school activity that he or she would have less time to do his or her homework. According to Laura Wood, writer for eHow Moms, California State University stated: “a child who devotes his spare time to extracurricular activities spends less time on studies. This can affect his grades if he is not spending enough time studying” (2009). The reduction of time studying and doing homework may have a significant impact on a student’s grades. There is also some stress that can arise from the student’s need to juggle both school and the extracurricular. Some students may not be able to handle the work load and, in consequence, frequently worry about finding a balance. California State University added: “It can also become stressful dedicating time to an activity if the schedule increases. As the academic workload increases, so too can an extracurricular activity, and a child can feel stressed wondering how he can deal with both” (2009). This overload of work can lead to high stress levels which can have a negative impact on both the student’s grades and health. Although some students do not benefit from participating in extracurricular activities, there are many students who do. According to Laura Wood, the University of Wisconsin stated: “a child can take the principles of a structured extracurricular activity and use them in his studies…A child is provided with an extracurricular interest that develops social skills, alternative resources and challenges. This can positively impact her concentration levels and allow her to focus on studying” (2009). Students who engage in some sort of club or sport can display better time management and studying skills than students who do not engage in an activity because of the responsibility that is required for that club or sport. Studies have shown that extracurricular activities have served more as an assist rather than a hindrance.

Extracurricular activities have been proven to be extremely beneficial for students because of the skills that they learn. Discipline, responsibility, and time-management are important tools that all individuals should take with them not just into the workplace but also into life, and these are what are gained when a student joins an extracurricular activity. Academic achievement and workplace readiness are among the many benefits that a student can enjoy if he or she engages in some sort of extracurricular activity. Today, thousands of schools across the nation offer various clubs and sports for the millions of students who are enrolled into them, and many students are enjoying the benefits of participating in an extracurricular activity.

References

Burgess, J. (2009). More 4 Kids. Retrieved from http://education.more4kids.info/168/extracurricular-school-activities/

I Have a Plan Iowa (2009). I Have a Plan. Retrieved from https://secure.ihaveaplaniowa.gov/Home/Article.aspx?level=3XAP2FPAX6J7I3kztATGuYyXAP2BPAXDahIQXAP3DPAXXAP3DPAX&articleId=IGeYH2kUApurN7JfmoFVeQXAP3DPAXXAP3DPAX

Massoni, E. (2011). College of DuPage. Retrieved from http://dc.cod.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1370&context=essai

Sinha, S. (2005). Udini. Retrieved from http://udini.proquest.com/view/the-effects-of-extracurricular-goid:746474393/

Wood, L. (2009). eHow Moms. Retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/info_8034677_effect-extracurricular-activities-academic-grades.html.

 

 

 

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Benefits of Public Education for All Classes

April 17, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Public Education Programs, School Structure

 

The basis of public education is the principle that it is open to all who want it. This principle is carried forward by policies of nondiscrimination. Nondiscrimination allows for all students from all walks of life to have an equal opportunity going forward. This equal opportunity is in large part what makes a free and fair society. Public education has massive social and economic impacts and effects. Positive influences of schooling provide a major role in dozens of social issues. The costs and benefits of schooling are shared around levels of government. Also, benefits of public schooling go far beyond the individual receiving the education; they affect crime, health, and civic engagement, which in turn help to create a better society for those future students. In the words of a Pennsylvania State professor “A population that is better educated has less unemployment, reduced dependence on public assistance programs, and greater tax revenue” (Mitra, 2011, p.5).  Through these three foundations of society; crime, health, and civics, education helps to build the basis for a better future.

The correlation between education and the employment rate, and thus financial stability, is clear to see.  “In 2009, the unemployment rate was much lower and average earnings were higher for individuals who did not drop out of high school and had achieved some level of college education.” (Mitra, 2011, p.6). The hardest hit groups were minorities who also have the lowest educational rates. Social factors impact those unemployed groups exacerbating the already low education levels. The less education the unemployed groups have, the less likely they are to gain or regain employment or go out and earn a higher education. Having had a lower level of education is a handicap for many in the job market, and this causes social mobility to be hindered. The poor stay poor because of the lack of education which caused them to become poor in the first place. The burden on government is greatest among these groups as well. The lower the education the more likely they are to rely on government aid. With greater support for education, welfare costs would be decreased due to lower levels of unemployment.

Public education provides one of the most effective ways to decrease crime and its detriments to society: “Generally, studies show that the more formal education a person receives, the less likely he or she is to engage in crime, especially violent crime.” (Mitra, 2011, p.14). The reasoning behind criminal behavior is generally based on lack of employment. If people do not have the education required to gain meaningful employment their best option is to become a criminal: “Overall, individuals incarcerated in U.S.prisons and jails report significantly lower levels of educational attainment than do those in the general population” (Ava, 2007, p.1). When people are provided with the skill sets necessary for employment in an effective and efficient way the stimulus for criminal behavior is reduced at its roots.

The founding principle of democracy in this country was based upon an educated constituency. As a general rule the better educated people are, the better able to make informed decisions they are, rather than relying on media or propaganda sources. Besides that, they are more likely to perform their civic duties and vote when they have higher levels of education.

luke graph

Note. Data on Voter Participation from “Educational Attainment and Voter Participation in November 2008, Age 18 and Over” by the U.S Census Bureau

This increased public involvement helps to make the country’s politics better reflect the views of its people. This same increased political and civic involvement includes students who increase their capacity to influence their communities in a positive manner. The more educated a young person is, the more likely he or she is to be involved with outside activities and organizations. These groups in turn help to confirm the values and ethics that create healthy safe communities.

Education is a right of all people, and its benefits are bountiful. Through action to improve education, its benefits can be fully recognized for all groups. With its multi-faceted benefits to an engaged and aspiring community, public education helps to prepare students of all walks of life equally for a productive and successful life.

References

Ava Page, A. (2007). Education and public safety. Retrieved from http://www.justicepolicy.org/images/upload/07-08_REP_EducationAndPublicSafety_PS-AC.pdf

Matri, D. (2011, June 27). http://www.elc-pa.org. Retrieved from

http://www.elc-pa.org/BestInvestment_Full_Report_6.27.11.pdf

Matri, D. (2011, June 27). Educational Attainment and Voter Participation in November 2008, Age 18 and Over. http://www.elc-pa.org/BestInvestment_Full_Report_6.27.11.pdf, pp. 22.

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National School Lunch Program

April 16, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Health, Public Education Programs

 

Lunch is usually a favorite subject for students because it is when they can socialize, finish their homework, and most importantly, eat. Although many will bring lunches from home, others will opt to buy food from their school’s cafeteria. Replenishing one’s body with nutrients is vital for one to have enough energy to finish the day. Unfortunately, cafeterias at public schools tend to sell sodium-rich, sugary, and fatty foods that do more harm than good to a child’s body. These unhealthy provisions are adding to the high obesity rate in America. Thankfully, the government has decided to step in for the first time in fifteen years and started the National School Lunch Program in order to ensure that students will be offered more healthy food than in years past.

While there is a minimum calorie limit determined by the government that school lunches must achieve, individual schools have the freedom to choose how the calories are distributed. Although some institutions will sell healthy choices, they might still offer unhealthy fast food items that students can also choose from. Many follow the old idea that hungry students only need more calories, and fail to consider that nutritious servings will satisfy them more than rubbish that gets its calories from fat. In 2006, a study by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention showed that 23.5% of high schools gave students fast food from places such as Taco Bell and Pizza Hut (Alderman, 2010). On the other hand, studies by the government found that participants in the National School Lunch Program are less likely to buy competitive foods, such as food from vending machines and à la carte lines. Nevertheless, both students, whether they are participants or non-participants, consumed dessert/snack items and non-milk beverages the most when buying competition foods. Out of these food categories, the most commonly purchased competitive food is candy, at 28% for NSLP participants and 24% for non-participants (Gordon & Fox, 2007). With these alarming statistics in mind, the government began to take action.

Even if parents make an effort to feed their children nutritious meals at home, students have the freedom to eat what they choose at lunch; however, schools serve delicious yet terribly unhealthy food high in salt, fat, and sugar –exactly what parents do not want their children to eat. The quality of school lunches was brought to the attention of the White House, due to the fact that “one-third of children in the USA are overweight or obese” (Hellmich, 2012). Michelle Obama took the issue under her wing and declared: “When we send our kids to school, we expect that they won’t be eating the kind of fatty, salty, sugary foods that we try to keep them from eating at home” (Hellmich, 2012). She worked with the Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack on the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act to urge the USDA to set new nutrition standards for public schools. These meal programs will be federally assisted, and the participating schools will get cash subsidies from the USDA for each meal they provide. For each free lunch and snack a school serves, it will receive $2.86 and $0.78 respectively; for each reduced-price lunch they will receive $2.46 and $0.39 respectively; and for paid lunches they will receive $0.27 and $0.07 respectively (“National school lunch,” 2012). Diane Pratt-Heavner, part of the School Nutrition Association admits that “healthier food costs more, so school programs will have to find ways to meet the standards while staying within their budget” (Hellmich, 2012). In order to promote the healthy standards and alleviate schools from more costs, schools will be given a larger budget to spend per meal. Additionally, schools can receive USDA “entitlement” foods, for 22.75 cents per meal. Most of these provisions are fresh produce provided by local small farmers; therefore, farmers benefit from these regulations as well as schools and students (“National school lunch,” 2012). The USDA hopes that with the promise of larger budgets to use to buy food that meet their standards for school meals, schools will vanquish junk food and give students more nutritious meals to choose from.

In order to receive the reimbursements and USDA foods, schools must follow the requirements of the National School Lunch Program. As seen in Figure 1, included in the conditions are maximum sodium and calorie limits for meals. Likewise, schools must offer a minimum amount of starchy vegetables, leafy green vegetables, legumes, and red-orange vegetables per week, with the amount depending on the age group. Schools must serve larger portions of vegetables and fruit per day at lunch. Eventually, all of the grains available to students must be whole grains, for example, in breads, cereals, pastas, buns, and rice. Milk is already in effect, and is required to be low fat or fat-free, while flavored milk must be fat-free. Unsurprisingly, all foods have to be trans-fat free (Hellmich, 2012).

table05

Note. Figure 1. New school meal plan adapted from “Nutrition standards in the national school lunch and school breakfast programs” by Kevin Concannon, 2011, Federal Register.

Fortunately, many schools have begun to take action and make small changes, such as banning soda and junk food from vending machines (Alderman, 2010). Other schools now bake their fries and patties, instead of frying them. Similarly, companies that supply products to the USDA replace frozen fried potatoes with roasted or baked ones. Nevertheless, public institutions have begun to take momentous steps in improving lunch meals, which proves to Pratt-Heavner the success of the program: “These are all goals school nutrition professionals have been working toward and these national nutrition standards will ensure that every student has access to a healthy meal in the cafeteria” (Hellmich, 2012). As the advancements progress, so will the students’ health.

The National School Lunch Program, which has been implemented in school regulations and is undergoing further advancements, is a positive influence on students’ diets. Schools have been allowing junk food as acceptable meals to serve for too long. With one third of the children in the United States being obese or overweight, government interference was necessary to get this country back into shape. Now that the lunch program is rapidly being followed by public schools across the nation, students are beginning to eat healthier and feel better. They are making smarter eating decisions as well, which is not hard because as the saying goes, food can be “delicious and nutritious.”

 

 

References

Alderman, L. (2010, November 5). Putting nutrition at the head of the school lunch line. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/11/06/health/06patient.html?_r=1&

Concannon, K. U.S. Government, Food and Nutrition Service. (2011). Nutrition standards in the national school lunch and school breakfast programs (FR Doc. 2011-485). Retrieved from website: https://www.federalregister.gov/articles/2011/01/13/2011-485/nutrition-standards-in-the-national-school-lunch-and-school-breakfast-programs

Gordon , A., & Fox, M. U.S Department of Agriculture, Office of Research, Nutrition, and Analysis. (2007).School nutrition dietary assessment study-iii: Summary of findings. Retrieved from Mathematica Policy Research, Inc website: http://www.fns.usda.gov/Ora/menu/Published/CNP/FILES/SNDAIII-SummaryofFindings.pdf

Hellmich, N. (2012, January 25). Government requires more fruits, veggies for school lunches. USA Today Your Life. Retrieved from http://yourlife.usatoday.com/fitness-food/diet-nutrition/story/2012-01-25/Government-requires-more-fruits-veggies-for-school-lunches/52779404/1

U.S Department of Agriculture, (2012). National school lunch program. Retrieved from website: http://www.fns.usda.gov/cnd/lunch/AboutLunch/NSLPFactSheet.pdf

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The Great Education Debate

April 16, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Public Vs. Private, School Structure

 

One of the greatest arguments regarding education is deciphering whether public or private schools are superior. Many parents and experts often believe that private schools are superior to the free, state sponsored public school system. However, there have been studies conducted that state the opposite. As improvements and advancements in the public school system continue, public schools students are often found to have equal academic skills and test scores compared their private school peers. Public schools are the best place for children to learn and grow in a diverse and expansive environment.

The quality of education in the public school system has been the subject of concern in recent years. Many people believe that public schools have become “a place of fun and games” and little learning. However, this is not the case. With an ever-expanding range of honors, Dual Enrollment, Advanced Placement, and International Baccalaureate classes, students have endless possibilities of attaining a wealth of knowledge. Jack Jennings, President of the Center on Educational Policy, concluded that: “Contrary to popular belief, we can find no evidence that private schools actually increase student performance” (Jennings, 2007).  Because of studies conducted by institutions like the Center on Educational Policy, public schools can be given credit for the many academic successes that occur on campus. With programs like AP and Dual Enrollment, public schools provide a quality education that is equal to that of a private school education.

Test scores are frequently used as a method of comparison of academic performance. Many people often incorrectly believe that private school students have higher test scores and performance than public school students. One such study conducted by the Center on Educational Policy (CEP) entitled “Are Private High Schools Better Academically Than Public High Schools?” found that public school students are equal to private school peers when controlling for socio-economic factors.

CEP “finds that once family background characteristics are taken into account, low income students attending public urban high schools generally performed as well academically as students attending private high schools. The study also found that students attending traditional public high schools were as likely to attend college as those attending private high schools” (Wenglinsky, 2007).

The belief that private schools are superior to public schools has been proven wrong by numerous studies, as shown by this CEP study.

As the topic of education has been an increasing subject of scrutiny, studies have been done that prove the opposite of the popular perception that public schools perform poorly. CEP, for example, has shown that public school students perform just as well as private school students. Public schools have been increasing the level of academic performance and quality in recent years through the growth of Advanced Placement, Dual Enrollment, and honors courses, often to a level that has never been matched before. Public schools are the obvious choice of where to send one’s children for a complex, in-depth, and exceptional education experience.

 

References

Cloud, J. (2007, October 10). Are private schools really better?. Time, Retrieved from http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,1670063,00.html

Wenglinsky, H. (2007, October 10). Are private high schools better academically than public high schools?. Retrieved from http://www.cep-dc.org/displayDocument.cfm?DocumentID=121

Wenglinsky, H. (2007, October). edline.com. Retrieved from http://www.edline.com/uploads/pdf/PrivateSchoolsReport.pdf

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No Child Left Behind: Another Advantage of Public Schools

April 16, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Laws Affecting Public Education, Reforms in Public Schools, Testing

 

Public education was created in order to offer free primary and secondary education for children of all races, genders, and ethnicities. This would enable impoverished children, as well as children of the middle class and higher, to receive a proper education and the opportunity to be successful later in life. However, some students are unable to learn at the same rate as others, and as a result, dropped out of school. Because of the dropout rates, President George W. Bush signed the “No Child Left Behind Act of 2001” (NCLBA) into law in early 2002 in an effort to continue to provide equal opportunities for all students.

As teachers taught at a progressively increasing speed, some students were not able to keep up with others. Soon, they fell behind, and eventually some dropped out. The act was created in order “to drive broad gains in student achievement and to hold states and schools more accountable for student progress” (Education Week, 2011). By holding teachers and schools responsible for ensuring students learn the material and make progress, children will receive a thorough education on all the core subjects.

Table 1: Performance of Schools with NCLBA          

table04

Adapted from “The State of No Child Left Behind’s Progress” by Downs, D (February 29, 2008). Word Press.

Schools began showing improvement just a couple of years after the bill was activated, with more schools beginning to reconstruct their institution. As seen in Table 1 (data taken from 2005-2007), of the nearly 100,000 schools, 70 percent of them have shown improvement with students’ test scores. Students have progressed rapidly due to the fact that teachers are required to be highly qualified, which: “generally meant that a teacher was certified and demonstrably proficient in his or her subject matter” (Education Week, 2011). Students are able to obtain a better education because teachers have expertise in their subjects, meaning they can pass their knowledge onto their students more precisely.

The “No Child Left Behind Act of 2001” has helped students’ test scores rise due to teachers educating their students at a slower, more comprehendible rate. This act has added another item on to the list of the pros of public education: students being able to learn at their own rate. If schools continue to improve at the pace they have been since this act was signed into law, soon every student will be at a proficient level in each subject he studies, which will open a variety of opportunities for him to be successful later in life. While some people may feel public education institutions do not do enough to teach their students properly, the NCLBA has proven teachers do their job more than well enough.

 

References

Downs, D (February 29, 2008). The State of No Child Left Behind’s Progress. Word Press. Retrieved from: http://thestateofamerica.wordpress.com/2008/02/29/the-state-of-no-child-left-behinds-progress/

Education Week (September 19, 2011). No Child Left Behind. Education Week. Retrieved from: http://www.edweek.org/ew/issues/no-child-left-behind/

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Just Do It

April 16, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Health, Public Education Programs

 

Upon reaching puberty, the average adolescent is saddled with many new responsibilities and rites of passage: growth spurts, high school, dances, and “the talk”. While even hearing the two simple words “the” and “talk” placed together causes teens to hide behind cell phones and magazines, adults see the dreaded conversation about sex as a ceremonial event. However, which adult should have the right to educate the current generation on the mating habits of the human species: the parent, or the teacher? Many concerned parents oppose sexual education in public schools, while students remain reckless and ignorant about sexual intercourse. This naivety is the sole reason why it should be encouraged for public schools to offer sex ed. in the classroom.

A very obvious, yet highly overlooked byproduct of unprotected sex is pregnancy. According to an article posted in the Public School Review, “the US has one of the highest teen pregnancy rates in the developed world—almost twice as high as those of England, Wales and Canada and eight times as high as those of the Netherlands and Japan” (Chen, 2008). While this statistic is startling, it is certainly expected. Chen further explains that 15% of Americans advocate for the installation of abstinence programs that do not include where to obtain contraceptives, instead of a conventional sexual education curriculum. The problem with this course of action is that teenagers, surprisingly, do not listen to authority. Many parents agree that they would prefer that their son/daughter to be sexually inactive; but if their child was to be having sex, they would prefer their son/daughter to have the proper methods of safe contraception. To a majority of children, this type of information can only be relayed through the public school system.

While pregnancy is life-altering, it is not physically harming, unlike sexually transmitted diseases. S.T.D.s, another possible outcome of unprotected intercourse, can be life threatening in cases such as H.I.V. and A.I.D.S. In her article from the New York Times, author Fernanda Santos reports that, “…as of January, 20 states and the District of Columbia mandated sex and H.I.V. education in schools. An additional 12 states, New York included, required H.I.V. education only…” (Santos 2011). While this statement provides hope, it still does not lessen the fact that the Center for Disease Control reports that 19 million new STD infections occur every year; and that nearly 50 percent of these new cases happen to young people between the ages of 15 and 24 (Teen STD Statistics, 2012). Sexual education needs to be encouraged further, with every state mandating sexual education in their public school system. Only when this happens will there be a significant drop in the number of teen and adults contracting S.T.D.s.

The benefits of sexual education are blatant, yet advocates against this type of course in schools are still raging. According to an article in TIME Magazine, “…school-board and P.T.A. meetings have been disrupted by angry opponents of sex education, who have sometimes labeled its advocates Communist sympathizers” (Jones, 2009). While this seems hyperbolic, the ignorance that these supporters maintain is unreal. Their reasons for pushing for the cancellation of these sex classes vary from religious tenants, to their belief that  if teens know about the act of sex, they will be more likely to engage in it. However, there is currently no empirical evidence to support this outrageous claim. Instead, people are seeing the benefits that these sexual education courses are offering for their children’s safety and future.

Linguists gave reported that in Eskimo culture, there are 32 different words to define snow. While this may seem impossible, Americans have figured out how to create hundreds of euphemisms to describe the simple act of sexual intercourse. Society has done this to mitigate the tension that comes with discussing sex. Though pre-teens and teenagers everywhere try to avoid talking about sex with any adult, the effects of ignoring any knowledge of sexual intercourse are much more dangerous.  This ignorance in today’s youth generation is why sexual education should be taught further in public schools. While “the talk” can be awkward, there is no way it is as inconvenient as taking a stroller to senior prom, or having to ask your doctor for a vaccine for syphilis.

 

References

Chen, G. (2008, September 20). Public Schools and Sex Education | PublicSchoolReview.com. Profiles of USA Public Schools | PublicSchoolReview.com. Retrieved February 25, 2013, from http://www.publicschoolreview.com/articles/46

Jones, N. (2009, July 25). Public Schools: Sex in the Classroom – TIME. TIMEMagazine.com. Retrieved February 25, 2013, from http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,901130,00.html

Santos, F. (2011, August 9). In New York City, a New Mandate on Sex Education – NYTimes.com. TheNewYorkTimes.com. Retrieved February 25, 2013, from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/08/10/nyregion/in-new-york-city-a-new-mandate-on-sex-education.html?_r=0

Teen STD Statistics, stats, facts Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD).. (2012, August 17). Familyfirstaid.com. Retrieved February 25, 2013, from http://www.familyfirstaid.org/std-statistics.html

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Uniforms for All

April 15, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Public Education Programs, Uniforms

 

In 1987, Baltimore’s predominantly African American Cherry Hill Elementary School implemented the first publicized uniform policy as a means of safety and reducing bullying in their school. Since then, public schools all over the country have been contemplating the idea of uniforms. Although school uniforms are a way of taking away a student’s sense of style by restricting one’s personality, having a specific uniform in public schools will secure the safety of the children and decrease bullying and social pressures.

Schools all over the country have gone into a frenzy of creating safety regulations in the past few years. Creating a uniform system is one of the many protocols schools are enforcing. Implementing a uniform system could drastically increase the safety of any public school. A qualitative study was done in North Carolinian public high schools to gauge teacher’s perceptions of how their school’s adopted uniforms policy had changed the safety of their schools and their campuses. The results of this Likert-type survey were clear. 98% of the teachers in North Carolinian public high schools saw that uniforms obtained a positive impact on the school’s safety (Johnson, 2011). Principal Scott Sincerbox of Sanford elementary school has shaped an acceptable theory:  “with kids wearing a sea of blue, white and navy, any intruders will stand out immediately” ( Faulkne, 2006). However, Sincerbox’s idea does have a down side.  With such a rigid dress code, how will the students be themselves and show their personality?  Children who are forced to wear uniforms are more likely to use makeup early and try to alter their uniforms. For example, many girls would shorten their skirts as a well to rebel. Individuality is also a huge part of a child’s development (Bocco, 2003). Sincerbox addresses this complaint: “Accessories, shoes, and hairstyles can still be ‘your own’ but having a unified uniform system will create a safe and healthy environment for our children” (Faulkne, 2006). Children can find many other forms of expression: through gestures, action, and voice. Roughly 35% of all public schools in the country have implemented a uniform system, and this percentage is continuing to rise. Policies that have already been created in schools have shaped a safe and healthy environment. Uniforms produce a positive image for public education safety.

Safety is a huge issue in today’s society. However, bullying has also created an enormous concern for public schools. School uniforms can also diminish the amount of bullying within schools by removing the opportunity to judge someone by their appearance. Everyone is dressed the same, thus, judgment is less common. A case study on the effects of adopting school uniforms in Long Beach, CA, which appeared in Psychology Today in September, 1999, found: “schools suspensions dropped by 90% and reported bullying went down 78%” (“Public school uniform,”).  The idea of uniforms allows the low income and high income students to look the same. These statistics also show that 89% of the students who are bullying are in the low income range of the country. Eliminating the barrier between the social classes will dramatically reduce the tension and temptation to bully. The creators of stopbullying.gov state that only 10% of all bullying incidents occur due to income differences. However, in-school bullying is a different story. Approximately 85% of in-school bullying is due to class variances. Decreasing bullying can greatly improve public education. (“What is bullying,”). Having school uniforms would allow more students to be happier and enjoy school. Uniforms will create an atmosphere for students to see the positives of public education

Safety precautions and bullying issues have become key discussions in school boards around the country. Fortunately, school uniforms will allow the boards and the students to feel safe and healthy in and out of the school environment. Many schools have already followed the Cherry Hill Elementary School policy, and there are many more that will adopt the policy that is slowly sweeping the nation.

 

Resources

Bocco, D. (2003). What are the pros and cons of school uniforms?.  Retrieved from

http://www.wisegeek.org/what-are-the-pros-and-cons-of-school-uniforms.htm

Faulkne, R. (2006). Addressing safety and spirit; uniform shirts adopted by four public schools. Retrieved

from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy1.lib.az.us:2048/ehost/detail?vid=5&sid=879f19e8-c30f-4193-b35a-dd01b14a7d7e@sessionmgr11&hid=23&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl

Johnson, W. S. (2011). Analyses of the impact of school uniforms on violence in north carolina public

high schools. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy1.lib.az.us:2048/ehost/detail?vid=5&sid=4ed179cb-2a75-42e6-a73f-b5ebe1c16452@sessionmgr10&hid=23&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXR1

Public school uniform statistics. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.educationbug.org/a/public-school-

uniform-statistics.html

What is bullying. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.stopbullying.gov/what-is-bullying/index.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

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The Benefits of Extracurricular Activities

April 14, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Public Education Programs

 

It is quite common to see that the most successful students in a school setting are also avid participants in extracurricular activities. “Extracurricular activities” is a broad category that involves clubs, sports, service organizations, teams, and many more school sponsored activities. Extracurricular activities all have several elements in common: they bring students together; they allow students to connect with one another, and they reinforce positive behaviors and attitudes. Due to their effects and outcomes, extracurricular activities are a beneficial part of the educational experience.

Some of the most important goals that extracurricular activities achieve are bringing students together with like-minded individuals and increasing school involvement. According to experts, participation in extracurricular activities: “Generates and reinforces educational success goals by exposing students to a network of social relations, consisting in part of school personnel and achievement-oriented peers, with the immediate benefit of binding these students to the school and to its normative structure” (Eckland & Hanks, 1976). These experts say that activities such as clubs, sports, and service organizations allow students to improve performance by putting them into contact with other students who strive for success. These relations between achievement-oriented students create lasting ties between the students and the school as a whole. Research shows that: “Participating in an extracurricular activity connects students more deeply to the school, its faculty, a peer group, and school values” (Holloway, 2002).  Most athletic and competitive clubs represent the school in their various competitions and events. As a result, a sense of school pride develops within these competitors. Team or club bonds are also established, and these positive social interactions aid considerably in the social development of the students that participate. Like-minded, success-oriented individuals who share common bonds and school pride are much more likely to thrive within the educational environment.

In addition to social and school connections, extracurricular activities provide the skills and knowledge for success both in the classroom and in life beyond schooling. According to the same experts, Eckland and Hanks (1976), extracurricular activities facilitate: “the achievement of…goals by students acquiring the kind of knowledge, interpersonal skills, self-confidence, and other attitudes that not only engender compliance but equip them with the personal resources needed in the longer run to translate goals into effective action.” Examples of the skills and knowledge that extracurricular activities impart upon the students who participate in them are very numerous. A few examples of these critical skills are punctuality, dedication, and perseverance. Especially in athletics, all of these key values are taught and branded into the minds of the young student-athletes. Punctuality is a life skill that is important, for one who is on time makes far better impressions than one who is late. Athletes, especially, learn punctuality due to scheduled practice times, and oftentimes, there are consequences for being late to a practice or other team-related event. Respect for an authority figure is a key life skill, one which many teenage students struggle with. Students who must perform under coaches or leading teachers develop a tremendous respect for their superiors. Students with respect for authority as opposed to those without it have a much easier time dealing with employers and working under others. Dedication and perseverance are character traits given to students through rigorous extracurricular activities, and these traits help students to handle adversity later in life. The skills that students develop through extracurricular activities are invaluable in their real-world applications.

Despite all the apparent benefits of extracurricular activities, there are still those who are opposed to them. The main point against extracurricular activities is that they take up valuable time that could be spent on assignments, causing stress on the schedules of student participants. According to Nikki Wilson (2009): “Parents and teachers might fear students may lose their focus on academics when they become too busy with out-of-school activities.” This is a legitimate fear that can be associated with extracurricular activities that require a significant time commitment. Over-scheduling is in no way a beneficial behavior. When a student participates in too many extracurricular activities, there is a much greater level of stress and pressure to succeed. When too many sports, clubs, and service organizations overstretch students, those once beneficial aspects of life venture in to the realm of negative influence. To calm the fears of opponents of extracurricular activities, moderation and time management must be emphasized. A student must not “bite off more than he can chew”, lest the activities overwhelm him. However, when the workload is large, but manageable, time management comes into play. This is a key skill that is used throughout post-secondary and adult life; the earlier it is learned, the more it can be perfected and honed to make the futture easier. So, while the increased workload is daunting to many opponents of extracurricular activities, if it is not too large to be dealt with, it can actually help a student later in life by developing key time management skills and techniques applicable to the unpredicted stresses frequent in adult life.

A final key benefit, and perhaps one of the most crucial of all benefits extracurricular activities offer, is the reduction in the chances of dropping out of school, especially in urban and low income areas. According to John H. Holloway (2000): “students who participate in athletics, fine-arts activities, and academic organizations were an estimated 1.7, 1.2, and 1.15 times, respectively, less likely to drop out than those who did not participate. Athletic participation reduces the probability of school dropouts by approximately 40 percent.” Because of the benefits of extracurricular activities, the students are much less likely to become high school dropouts. Skills taught by extracurricular activities, such as punctuality, discipline, and time management, allow the students not to feel so stressed and overwhelmed that they drop out. In addition, the school pride and positive social relationships they develop through the activities make it so the students enjoy their time in high school, and strive to finish rather than dropping out early and leaving everyone they know at the school behind. In some cases, the enjoyment of the activity or sport is the sole reason a student continues his education and does not drop out. The cumulative effects of the activities themselves and the lessons they teach keep many kids in school, a benefit that far outweighs any costs associated with extracurricular activities.

Overall, the skills, connections, and pride gained from extracurricular activities are incredibly beneficial to students. They help to increase academic performance, social confidence, and for some students even provide further education through scholarships. When abused, these activities can be a detrimental factor in a student’s life. However, when the right balance between academics and activities is achieved, these activities dramatically increase success and drastically decrease dropout rate. Overall, extracurricular activities have facilitated success for many years and will continue to shape and mold successful individuals for many generations hence by imparting the skills and knowledge that are necessary to succeed in both the classroom, and in life.

 

 

Reference

Eckland, B. K. & Hanks, M. P. (1976). Athletics and social participation in the educational  attainment process. Sociology of Education, 49(4), 271-294. doi: 2112314

Holloway, J. H. (September 2002). Extracurricular activities and student motivation. Educational  Leadership: Understanding Youth Culture, 60. Retrieved from             http://www.ascd.org/publications/educationalleadership/sept02/vol60/num01/Extracurric   ular-Activities-and-Student-Motivation.aspx

Holloway, J. H. (January 2000). Extracurricular activities: the path to academic success?. Educational Leadership: Understanding Youth Culture, 57. Retrieved from     http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/dec99/vol57/num04/-         Extracurricular-Activities@-The-Path-to-Academic-Success%C2%A2.aspx

Wilson, N. (May 2009). Impact of extracurricular activities on students. Retrieved from:            http://www2.uwstout.edu/content/lib/thesis/2009/2009wilsonn.pdf

 

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Liberation by Education

April 13, 2013 in 2012-2013, Abstract, Archive, Articles, School Structure

 

An article published in the Journal of Economic Growth titled “Why Does Democracy Need Education?” takes a scientific and scholarly approach in order to study the relationship between education and democracy. For years, it has been believed that the type of education a country has correlates with the country’s system of government. However, no one has been able to supply a strongly-supported explanation of this correlation. The hypothesis studied by this paper is that higher standards of education lead to democracy. Information about democracy and education can be used to make informed decisions regarding education in the United States in order to promote the stability of the country as a resilient and free nation.

There is a discussion pertaining to the role of students in pro-democracy movements and protests: “peaceful demonstrations in which students played a key part helped save democracy in the Ukraine against the aggrandizement by the ex-President who stole the election” (Glaeser, Ponzetto, and Shleifer, 2007, p. 78). This activism alone does not provide enough evidence that the students are motivated by a desire to participate and live in democracy, as opposed to simply wanting to be involved in a collective movement. There does seem to be a relationship between the type of government and what is taught in schools. For example, Californian public education encourages and requires students to be taught about the importance of voting and participating in civics. Foreign countries that have dictatorships and other forms of government do not teach young people to be active in politics. The type of education a government promotes appears to be linked to the continuation of the current system of government.

The paper concludes that there is an almost definite link between education and democracy and claims that schools allow for socialization among students, which leads to greater social participation in adulthood. Democracy relies on the participation of the people. Therefore, an education system that promotes democratic ideals will lead to a stronger democracy. These values are promoted in public schools in the United States and other democratic countries around the world. This link between education and democracy is an example of how the public education system in place today allows for the continued success of the country as a whole.

 

Reference

Glaeser, E. L., Ponzetto, G. A. M., & Shleifer, A. (2007). Why does democracy need education?. Journal of economic growth, 12(2), 77-99. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/40216116

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Diversity

April 13, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Religion

 

Every day a child goes through the same routine: wake up, get dressed, go to school, and return home. Even with a mundane schedule, there is bound to be mystery within a typical student’s day at school.  Children are said to be vultures; they pick on one another and are insensitive to their peers. However, this is a common misconception of the school world. A number of students learn throughout the years about what bullying does and its effects on a person. Within the United States, several students from different cultures go to school in harmony. Each school tends to promote a positive outlook on their students and promote the diversity that has become common within school.

This promotion of diversity can start with a single student. Alaa El Saad describes her own experience with the cultural acceptance at her school through a radio interview with Michel Martin, an Emmy Award–winning American journalist. Through the interview she is described as a normal student who believes it is not necessary to conform fully to the American culture. She wrote an essay describing the first time she wore a hijab to school and how her peers reacted. Some might say that Alaa faced rude remarks and glances, but it was the exact opposite. Alaa even touches upon her astonishment in the interview: “I was wrong about everything I thought the kids would say or even do to me… Most of the kids would come and ask me questions respectfully about the hijab and why I wore it”  (Martin, 2009). The students respected her choice to express her culture. Furthermore, Alaa was able to educate others on her culture by wearing one simple head garment.

Alaa’s hijab helped students increase their knowledge regarding the Muslim culture and that would have not been possible without such a diverse environment. In fact, Richard D. Kahlenberg and  Halley Potter from The Centure Foundation published a document presenting the benefits of a culturally diverse school. Their findings include the fact that “Diverse schools … can help prevent bias and counter stereotypes”  (Potter & Kahlenberg, 2012, p. 2). A diverse setting does not allow for the uprising of secluding others; instead, it promotes the ideal melting pot of cultures within the school. In addition, diversity in school allows for students to open their eyes and be prepared to deal with other cultures in the real world.

Potter and Kahlenberg were not the only ones who stumbled upon the benefits of diversity in schools; Liselott Forsman, who presides on the Faculty of Education at Åbo Akademi University, wrote his thesis presenting the matter. In this instance, he provides the benefits of diversity acknowledgement with the accompaniment of studying a foreign language.  His research is presented as “an attempt at promoting awareness of difference and diversity in the EFL classroom, to help prevent and modify stereotypical views among teenaged students” (Liselott, 2010, p. 1). So far, schools involving diversity help students open their minds to the possibilities and remove the cultural ignorance that dwells in many students’ minds.

Throughout life in school there is bound to be at least one cultural clash where a student is forced to step into another person’s shoes. The program has many names but is commonly known as Minitown or Anytown. Several schools participate in involving these anti-discrimination programs within the school year. Burge, a staff writer of the San Diego Tribune,  writes about the impact Minitown has made on several people. He set out for interviews and heard:

‘We had a split community,’ Jenkins said, noting that in his early teens he was not receptive to a message of acceptance. He said his participation in Minitown ‘completely changed my life. It set me on the right path.’ (Burge, 2004).

Burge was able to pull out similar stories to Jenkins from the impact the programs had left on students who took part of the program.

Even with programs like Minitown, some schools have decided to stay segregated in the United States. Due to some cases where the school environment is surrounded by poverty, it is a matter of segregation that has to be deployed. Katrina Bulkley, a New Jersey-based professor of educational leadership, reflects on the Connecticut’s Capital Preparatory Magnet School. This school, along with several similar schools were  “originally created to give students living in high poverty areas the chance to receive exceptional education in areas where it’s most needed, others argue segregation has no place in today’s education system, period” (Bulkley, 2012). Schools are forced into segregation at times and are unable to promote the diversity around them. Similar to Connecticut’s Capital Preparatory Magnet School,  England is home to a variety of segregated schools. Simon Burgess and Deborah Wilson decided to look further into the ethnicity behind England’s schools.  As chairs in the department of Economics and CMPO their “findings are as follows. Levels of ethnic segregation in England’s schools are high. In many local areas, over half the minority pupils would have to switch schools to evenly spread the ethnic groups” (Burgess & Wilson, 2004, p. 20). Even if a change were to occur, there would still be a horrible imbalance within each of the school systems. Schools still function on a segregated level and still manage to promote positive outlooks.

Whether diverse or segregated, learning still does occur in school. However, with a diverse situation comes a lesson of life instead of the usual facts. Thus, the belief is that a school should accept all cultures, despite breaking a barrier. The promotion of diversity allows one to open one’s mind to the possibilities that are floating free in the world. Racism is an outlet which proves to be neither satisfying nor calming. Martin Luther King Jr. and Abraham Lincoln took the first steps to eradicate the cruelty of racism, it is time that the school system cherishes the outcome and diversity that has come about from their impacts on society.

 

References

Bulkley K. (2011, August 11). Are Magnet Schools Perpetuating Segregation?. Huffington Post.

Burge M. (2004, December 12). Minitown makes an impact. Palomar Mount.

Burgess S. and Wilson D. (2004, November 30). Ethnic Segregation in England’s Schools. The Royal Geographical Society, 30, 20-36. 

Forsman L. (2010, October). EFL Education in the New Millennium: Focus on the Promotion of Awareness of Difference and Diversity. Routledge, 54, 501-517.

Kahlenberg D. R. and Potter H. (2010, May). Can Racial and Socioeconomic Integration Promote Better Outcomes for Students?. The Century Foundation & PRRAC, 1-41.

Martin, M. (Producer) (2009, January 29). America’s beauty is in its diversity. On Tell  Me More. (NPR). [Radio Broadcast].

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180 days of…

April 13, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Health

 

Out of 365 days in the year, 180 of them are spent in a modern day United States school system. Within those 180 days, 40 to 60 minute lunches are given to each student. After spending a majority of the time in line for lunch, students usually make split decisions when choosing their food. Most students pick the more appealing option, pizza, since it requires no effort to make and satisfies their taste buds.  Pizza is just one of the temptations schools implement in their food service, for there are greasy french fries, burgers, and worst of all vending machines. Thankfully, school staffs have realized they are tempting their students into obesity with the food that is being provided within the system. To solve this problem, the schools have decided to tackle health issues one bite at a time.

The first bite consists of recognizing the problem at hand:  an increasing rate in childhood obesity. Mary Story, a biomedical expert, Marilyn S. Nanney, a PhD professor at University of Minnesota, and Marlene B. Schwartz, a deputy director for the Rudd Center for Food Policy & Obesity at Yale University, came together to track down this problem. They note that their research leads them to find that there are a record number of overweight children in America than ever before. Instead of simply stating the dilemma, all three women collectively propose a solution:  “Schools offer many opportunities to develop strategies to prevent obesity by creating environments in which children eat healthfully” (Story, 2009).  This general statement signifies a start and a promise to integrate a healthy lifestyle within a school environment for 180 days a year.

Words can only move a person slightly, but an action can cause an explosion for change. For instance, in history, Emerson used his words to move crowds, while Thoreau was able to make a statement with his actions. Oz Garcia, a PhD nutritionist, stepped into Thoreau’s shoes when he took a stance against the junk food filled vending machines.  He stares obesity right in the eyes and pledges that he will convince schools to change what is encased in the glass covered machines. Oz Garcia’s stand is to educate the parents and principals of schools: “Take the time to check out your child’s cafeteria and explore what’s inside their vending machines. If you don’t like what you see, take a stand. Do something” (Garcia, 2010). His message signals a hope to have the adults take charge of their child’s health. At least one of those adults will make a difference in his or her child’s school.

These words and actions are argued never to work and fail miserably; thus, many hopes of changing the school’s habits have been crushed. However, the North Platte School in Nebraska has defied the idea that there can never be a transformation in the food service at a school. Once the food service was chosen to be the school’s meal provider, students started to increase their intake of fruits and vegetables. The school’s lunch room can even be mistaken for a restaurant buffet. The foods are made from scratch and every meal fulfills nutrition requirements. (Weston, 2012). Opaa! and similar food programs are coming out and taking initiative to help provide healthier meals to account for a child’s necessary diet.  The Board of Regents of the University of Colorado published, in one of their field reports, a reform movement towards the link between schools and obesity. By observing the methods presented in Maniago’s in-shape school in northern Italy, the same procedures are planned to be taken in Colorado. Their goal is to have the involvement of the entire community: “The common misconception is there will be a program directly targeting obesity, instead, the school … can use what is already done in its day-to-day life to promote new healthy habits” (Madorell, 2005). School is a place to be educated, not only in a literature and mathematical sense, but also in a lifestyle view.

With the back-support of the community, nutrition is very likely to spread through the hallways of education.  Furthermore, students will be able to get the food they deserve after rewiring their brains day after day. In New Orleans the group “Rethink” published an entire newsletter filled with the opinions of students in the public school district. After tallying the votes several students were in favor of a fresh cooked meal, like the ones provided in North Platte Schools, rather than the pre-cooked ones being served.  (See Table 1).

Table 1

Survey Results: What Students Do Want

graph03

Note: The data on preferred meals of students is adapted from “Time To Rethink School Lunch: Students Grade New Orleans Public School Cafeterias” by T. Andrews & Rethink Organization,  Rethink.

More than half of the students in New Orleans are willing to voice in their opinion for a change on their lunch. The opportunity for change is preeminent in several other states as well. With a look into a student’s mind, the final bite can be taken. As all the bites come together they will collectively consume the problem of unhealthy food intake.

In the end, a change can occur within the school systems around the US. The increasing rate of obesity needs to be tackled one bite at a time. Hopefully, 300 million bites and counting can devour the situation.  A course of action in some way is implemented each day; through the course of time a child spends in school, he will learn that every single year, day, and second counts. 180 days of school can prove to be 180 days of education, 180 days of nutrition, and 180 days to spread life habits that are bound to last forever.

 

References

Andrews T. & Rethink Organization. (2010). Time To Rethink School Lunch: Students Grade New Orleans Public School Cafeterias. Rethink.

Garcia O. (2010, February 12). School nutrition: Targeting junk-food-filled vending machines. Huffington Post.

Madorell L., Terán N., & Ullmo A. P. (2005). “La Scuola in Forma”-The In-Shape School: An Educational Project on Childhood Obesity. Children, Youth and Environments, 15, 287-306.

Story M., Nanney S. M., & Schwartz B. M. (Mar., 2009). Schools and Obesity Prevention:  Creating School Environments and Policies to Promote Healthy Eating and Physical Activity. The Milbank Quarterly, 87, 71-100.

Weston, A. (2012, October 31). North Platte county school, students tout nutritious lunch program. Huffington Post.

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Music in Public Schools

April 11, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Fine Arts, Public Education Programs

If there was a pill that government officials could distribute to all students in America to increase test scores, would they do it? Hypothetically, if these “magic” tablets costs millions of dollars a year, but will increase SAT scores by over 100 points in all categories, would it happen? Perhaps a doctor who specializes in this pill would have to attend all schools in order to assure they are taken correctly, but it would increase students’ grades by nearly 11 percent in math and English. Would it be a worthwhile investment? The answer, apparently, is no. This “pill” is music education in public schools, and according to a study published in 2007 by LM Henderson, music has these effects (par. 3-4). However, it has slowly dwindled out of focus for the government, and not without hard-fought resistance.

While skimming a 1921 speech by Frances E. Clark, it becomes evident that music education is not a new-age problem. It has existed since the first public education system opened in America without music, and the country has continued to thrive in this manner for two hundred years (par. 1). It was only in 1836 that music was introduced to public schooling, and now, nearly two hundred years later, it faces the threat of extinction once again. Many argue endlessly that people are not functional at nearly the same level of intellect without music. Lara Pellegrinelli, a writer for NPR, published a 2012 article in which she stated: “high levels of arts engagement by the lowest socioeconomic quarter of students corresponds with greater numbers of students who, for example, complete high school calculus, exercise the right to vote, do volunteer work, finish a Bachelor’s degree and choose a professional career path” (par. 11). In short, art and music education help to produce a future that is productive and successful. It can open students’ minds up to new worlds. It provides a communication channel for students who have issues otherwise. It allows expression of the deepest emotions without the need for social interaction. It presents routes of success and achievement that are only accessible through music. DoSomething.org published a list of 11 points of why it considers music to be a pivotal point of every education, three of which are:

“Music is to the brain as physical exercise is to the human body. Music tones the brain for auditory fitness and allows it to decipher between tone and pitch … Children who study a musical instrument are more likely to excel in all of their studies, work better in teams, have enhanced critical thinking skills, stay in school, and pursue further education … Students who study arts are more cooperative with their teachers and peers, have higher levels of self-confidence, and are more equipped to express themselves and their ideas” (par. 3, 6, 9).

DoSomething.org’s other eight points are equally as positive and beneficial as these three. The short article does a wonderful job of detailing exactly how music is not something that can be removed from the lives of the millions of public school students who participate in it every day. The Music Section of the Education Congress said in a 1919 journal that “music, next to food and clothing, is the most essential requirement of the American” (par. 1). While still relevant nearly one hundred years later, it is wise for America’s government to take a leaf from this speech’s book. The students that participate in music education benefit so greatly that music is sure to be kept around… Right?

While it may be true that there are few drawbacks for individual students, music education suffers due to the government. According to Sherry Posnick-Goodwin, a writer for ChildrensMusicWorkshop.com, the music education system in California has lost nearly 50% of all students in five years – 18.5% of students participated in a music program in the 1999-2000 school year, but in the 2003-2004 school year, that number had dropped to 9.3%. Not only were less students enrolled, but less teachers were available to teach, resulting in a 26.7% loss of music educators in the state of California (par. 8). The biggest question facing state and national governments is, is it financially responsible to continue pumping money for instruments, lessons, teachers, and travel fares if the attendance is declining? For example, if a new movie is released in a theater, but not many people go to see it, it will be removed from the theater. So, why does music education receive special treatment? Not only has attendance for music classes gone down, but approval of teachers of other subjects has followed a similar trend. Many believe that students who participate in music, which can be incredibly time-consuming, are not able to devote enough attention to their other classes, as well as the fact that music can easily alienate students who don’t have a natural inclination towards it.

These long-debated arguments are not ones with easy answers. The pill that is music education in America can greatly increase chances of success, but, like any medication, bears its own set of side effects that the country’s citizens must be made aware before they are allowed to alter its dosage.

 

 

 

References

 

Clarke, Frances E. (Dec 1921). Music in Education. Music Supervisors’ Journal, Vol. 4, No. 2, pg 20-22. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3382569.

Henderson, LM. (2007, Jul 16). Music Education: Essential or Expendable? Yahoo! Voices. Retrieved from http://voices.yahoo.com/music-education-essential-expendable-

408002.html.

Morgan, Russel V. (Nov. 6, 1919). The Nature and Value of Music. Music Supervisors’ Journal, Vol. 6, No. 3, pg 20-22. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3383308.

Pelligrenelli, Lara. (2012, Apr 6). Music Education in Public Schools Gets a Passing Grade. NPRMusic. Retrieved from http://www.npr.org/blogs/therecord/2012/04/06/

150133858/music-education-in-public-schools-gets-a-passing-grade.

Posnick-Goodwin, Sherry. (2004, Dec). Curtain for the Arts? Music Education Online. Retrieved from http://www.childrensmusicworkshop.com/advocacy/curtainsforcalifornia.html.

 

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Dr. Anna Battle

April 9, 2013 in 2011-2012, 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Guest

Finding real examples of how public education has been beneficial to many is not a difficult task. In my hometown, only a select few could afford to attend private schools. Public schools met and exceeded the needs of the community in which they were built. Students attended and experienced many facets of life and students were taught how to build relationships, respect authority and dream about the future. As a former student of public education, I strongly believe that I had many opportunities to learn in school. The educators in Winslow, Arizona instilled in me the love of others, a hard work ethic and the motivation to make the best out of life’s circumstances.

As I walked in the halls of Winslow High School, people greeted each other upon eye contact. This was a natural tendency from many of us from a small rural community on a plateau, near the reservation. Winslow was a very diverse population, where people met, interacted, socialized and were educated together. At school, we were all Winslow Bulldogs and were proud of it. Not many came from high social statuses, but we all learned to work together on school campus. We learned as a group, competed together, worked out conflict and made life decisions for the future. All levels of education were challenging and rewarding. The teachers were educated and loved all of the students, regardless of economic status, race or abilities. As I grew older, I often wondered how did some teachers arrive in Winslow, Arizona and teach in schools.

Public educators often find themselves in thankless positions. Often, the reward of hard work only is evident after a child becomes an adult. Far and few between, when things are tough just at the right time, educators are energized by a compliment that says, you made a difference. Often that compliment includes appreciation for the development of character and stamina. Former students thank their educators for asking more of them than they wanted to give. They thank their teachers for looking into the future and providing them with a work ethic that is providing for their families. While, at the time of learning, some of what was taught did not seem meaningful, as life took a new course many realized that teachers made a difference in their lives.

Life means something different for most people. As a student, what was taught in public schools in Winslow, Arizona was “because of my circumstances, I need to persevere”. Public schools bring many people together with diverse back grounds with different life circumstances. Given a common theme from challenges, children can choose many paths that can direct them the long way, the short way or no way at all. Public school teachers must attend to the future of their children. Guiding, nurturing and gently correcting students to stay the course requires much patience and wisdom. All who walk through the door of public schools are embraced and destined for success. High expectations, regardless of life’s circumstances are what have created doctors, lawyers, educators, as well as many professions of our day. Public schools have served us well and without the schools in Winslow, Arizona that served me, there would be no me. I am thankful to public educators around the world.

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AP Courses are Essential for College Preparation

April 8, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Gifted Program, Public Education Programs

 

Since the College Board’s Advanced Placement program inception in 1955, millions of students have experienced one of the greatest and most challenging programs of public education. AP courses provide a rigorous and rewarding curriculum for the college-bound, determined student. Also, students engage in learning that is useful in college and in life. The AP exam, administered by the College Board, provides students with the opportunity to earn college credit while in high school. AP courses, offered by most high schools around the country provide valuable college level academic skills that result in higher student success and performance at university.

AP courses challenge students with a level of difficulty that no other high school courses can provide. According to the College Board, AP courses are designed to be as intensive as entry-level college courses. Because of this high performance standard, high school students gain college level experience before even stepping foot onto a university campus. Susan M. Keenan, writing for LifeScript Magazine, describes AP courses as a “wealth of academic opportunity unrivaled in past years” (Keenan, 2007). The College Board states: “You’ll improve your writing skills, sharpen your problem-solving abilities, and develop time management skills, discipline, and study habits” (College Board). In addition to gaining and improving these essential academic skills, students will achieve a greater depth of knowledge over the standard grade-level curriculum.

One of the most debated topics regarding the AP program is whether or not students will achieve a higher level of college preparedness, performance, and graduation over other non-AP

students. Numerous studies have been conducted that have proven these results. One such study, conducted by the National Center of Educational Accountability (NCEA), found that:

“students who earned a 3 or better on one or more AP Exams in the areas of English, mathematics, science, or social studies were more likely to graduate from college in five years or less compared to non-AP students, even after controlling for prior academic achievement and other student-level and school-level demographic characteristics” (College Board).

The following table was published by the NCEA study and shows that Hispanics students who passed an AP exam had a 45% higher chance of graduating than non-AP Hispanic students.

Table 1

table03

Note. The table of Differences in College Graduation Rates is from “The Relationship between Advanced Placement and College Graduation: 2005 AP Study Series, Report 1 – February 2006” by C. Dougherty, L. Mellor, & S. Jian of the National Center for Educational Accountability.

Critics of the AP program have often claimed that AP courses do not live up to their college level description and often times do not have any effect on student performance and college readiness. John Tierney, writing for The Atlantic, claims that: “AP courses are not, in fact, remotely equivalent to the college-level courses they are said to approximate.” He also says: “Increasingly, students don’t receive college credit for high scores on AP courses; they simply are allowed to opt out of the introductory sequence in a major. And more and more students say that’s a bad idea, and that they’re better off taking their department’s courses” (Tierney, 2012). On the other hand, data and research, conducted by Rick Morgan and Len Ramist of the Educational Testing Service, show that “AP students exempted from introductory college courses, including mathematics and science courses, earned higher course grades than students who took the introductory course on the college campus” (College Board). The AP program has numerous advocates and critics, each with their own opinions regarding the successfulness of the curriculum.

The AP program, with millions of students participating every year, influences the lives of young people in a positive way. With the opportunity of earning college credit and improving skills, students are better prepared for higher education. Even though the program has numerous outspoken critics, research conducted by numerous institutions shows that AP courses notably benefit high school students through higher graduation rates, college level skills, experience, and success.

 

References

Dougherty, C., Mellor, L., & Jian S., (2006) The Relationship between Advanced Placement and College Graduation: 2005 AP Study Series, Report 1 – February 2006

Does success on advanced placement program® exams predict college success?. (2006, February 06). Retrieved from http://press.collegeboard.org/releases/2006/does-success-advanced-placement-program174-exams-predict-college-success

Keenan, S. (2007, May 23). Benefits of ap courses for high school students. LifeScript, Retrieved from http://www.lifescript.com/life/family/parenting/benefits_of_ap_courses_for_high_school_students.aspx

Learn About Advanced Placement. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.collegeboard.com/student/testing/ap/about.html

National Center for Educational Accountability. (2005). The Relationship between Advanced Placement and College Graduation: 2005 AP Study Series, Report 1 – February 2006: Chrys Dougherty, Lynn Mellor, and Shuling Jian

Tierney, J. (2012, October 13). Ap classes are a scam. The Atlantic, Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/national/archive/2012/10/ap-classes-are-a-scam/263456/

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Communities Benefit From Public Schools Too

April 8, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Public Education Programs

 

The modern public school system has been a part of society since the 1840s. Millions of children across America have gained a free education from these public institutions. There has been an ongoing debate regarding who should be required to pay for them. Many believe only those who have children in school should pay because the schools do not benefit anyone else. However, public schools do much more than merely educate the nation’s students; they also directly and indirectly benefit the surrounding community.

When professor Zachary Neal analyzed the data from the Soul of Community survey, he found that there was a correlation between community satisfaction and quality public schools (Badger, 2012). Even citizens who had no children attending the school in the neighborhood agreed that they were satisfied with the community. Private and charter schools do not have these characteristics, because they enroll students from different locations. Students who attend a public school live within the same boundary; therefore, they are a part of the community. A public school serves as the center of a community, whether one has children or not.

Public schools offer many amenities to community members. The facilities in these institutions are not only used by the students but also by the people in the neighborhood. One of the main reasons why there is a strong connection between public satisfaction and the quality of a school, is because “public schools offer amenities to the entire community such as adult education courses, after-hours computer labs, workout facilities, auditorium space for churches and other groups, and more” (‘No kids,’ 2012). Through these amenities, the school becomes directly beneficial to almost every member of the community. Private schools, generally closed to the public, do not provide these types of benefits. The private institutions maintain their facilities only for the use of the students attending the school. Therefore, public schools, unlike private schools, provide tangible benefits to their communities.

With the availability of public facilities, public schools also help create a strong community network. According to Brandon Howell (2012), a study done by MSU professors regarding the effects of public schools on communities proved: “public schools promote relationships among community members, which often lead to the solutions to problems.” Public schools also use parent volunteers to help teachers in the classroom. When other members in the community help out at schools, a strong social network is created that envelops the entire neighborhood. The public school system is indirectly responsible for creating thousands of strong communities throughout the country (Badger, 2012). Private and charter schools are not capable of building strong community networks because they draw students from different regions, unlike public schools. Even adults who do not have students attending public schools benefit from the network created by the school. Schools create a sound, safe community for all civilians to live in; because the schools create this atmosphere, the neighborhoods also take on these qualities: “A neighborhood with an existing social network such as the one created around a school is also better equipped to tackle community needs entirely unrelated to education” (Badger, 2012). Based on the opinion of many, a concerned community is an ideal place to live. Public schools create a ‘spatially embedded network’ that one cannot find around private or charter schools (Neal & Neal, 2012). Living in a community that has a public school increases the bond between a community because of both geographic reasons and school-related reasons.

In contrast, many believe that if they do not have a school-aged child, they should not be forced to pay for public schools. People against school bonds usually state that they should not have to finance the schools because they receive no benefit from them (Badger 2012). Members of communities who feel they are not in any way aided by public schools often point out the problems created by the public institutions: “residents are rarely engaged in a school’s capital planning processes, and school planners often overlook community concerns. Moreover, as many schools sport ‘big-box’ designs, create ‘school sprawl,’ and generate traffic congestion, they are seldom viewed as community assets” (Chung, 2005). Schools can create many issues for citizens living in the vicinity. They take up large plots of land, reduce the speed limit in surrounding areas, and create commotion at release time. If one is not concentrated on searching for benefits of the public schools system, these negative effects are easy to spot.

Members of society who do not wish to pay for public schools do not realize the direct and indirect benefits these public institutions provide for them. Many citizens are oblivious to the abundance of possibilities created by public schools:

They serve as centers of learning. They employ residents, and they connect neighbors with one another. As place-based institutions, they are a part of a neighborhood’s physical fabric, impacting local housing markets and influencing the character of a community. Moreover, public schools have access to a myriad of local resources including funding, land, and political goodwill. (Chung, 2005).

Public schools create numerous opportunities for each member of a community. Although they may have a small list of negative impacts, the positive traits negate them in the long run. People need to be willing to fund public schools because they are receiving benefits from them everyday, whether they know it or not.

For over a century, public schools have resided in many cities in America. Many community members have often debated whether or not they should have to fund these public institutions when they receive nothing from them. These residents should have to help pay for public schools because of the many benefits they receive. Public schools not only provide direct benefits like public facilities and free education, but also indirect benefits such as building a strong community. The public school system does more than educate America’s children—it creates a bonded country.

 

References

Badger, E. (2012, February 22). Public schools good for people without kids, too. Pacific Standard, Retrieved from http://www.psmag.com/education/public-schools-good-for-people-without-kids-too-40004/

Chung, C. (2005). Connecting public schools to community development. Communities and Banking, 10-16. Retrieved from http://www.bos.frb.org/commdev/c&b/2005/winter/Public.pdf

Howell , B. (2012, February 20). Public schools benefit all, including those without children, msu scholars say. Lansing News. Retrieved from http://www.mlive.com/lansingnews/

index.ssf/2012/02/public_schools_benefit_all_inc.html

Neal, Z. P., & Neal, J. W. (2012). The public school as a public good:direct and indirect pathways to community satisfaction . Journal of Urban Affairs, 34(5), 469-486. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9906.2011.00595.x

No kids in public school? you still benefit. (2012, February 20). MSU News. Retrieved from http://research.msu.edu/stories/no-kids-public-school-you-still-benefit

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Lights of the World

April 7, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, School Structure

Lights of the World

Education has been a significant foundation in the lives of individuals and communities, in our nation. Once an African American Muslim educator, Malcolm X, specified: “Education is our passport to the future, for tomorrow belongs to the people who prepare for it today” (X, 1965). As Malcolm X stated, education is the key to brighter futures, benefiting both individuals and our nation as a whole. Without a structured education system, our nation would lack hope for further development in general. The public education system affects two major areas: social and economic. Socially, since it guarantees liberated scheme, anyone could be imparted and given chances to expand his or her knowledge as much as desired. This advantage will eventually help the growth of society. Economically, higher level of public education increases the financial income of individuals which will later improve the economy’s condition. In public schools, everyone will get opportunities to experience learning, and progress the country with an even brighter beam of lights reflected by the individuals.

The number one beneficial fact about public schools is that they are open to every student in the country. As people learn different fundamental and critical ideas, their problem solving skills will develop, which will eventually be helpful for themselves and the good of society. According to a report by the University Leadership Council (2008), “the well-educated population caused to increase: individual health and well-being, volunteer work, and voting participation” (University Leadership Council, 2008). It might be strange to think that education, which is mostly a use of the brain, could affect people’s health. In fact, health is directly related to how much education people have. People educate themselves for money, and money is used for their own survival. As the effectiveness of education is seen, it is labeled to be one of the most important aspects in a people’s lives; however, once their health is taken away, their accomplishments will disappear like shoes on 90% discount. Les Picker, one of the members in the National Bureau of Economic Research group, stated: “In 1999, the age-adjusted mortality rate of high school dropouts ages 25 to 64 was more than twice as large as the mortality rate of those with some college” (Picker, 2008). The result demonstrates how much education is effective for well-being.

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Figure 1: The percentage of adults reporting excellent or very good health by income and education level. Adapted from “The Broader Societal Benefits of Higher Education,” by Baum and Payea, 2001, Retrieved from http://jcu.edu/academic/planassess/planning/files/Planning%20articles/Br oader%20Social%20Bemnefits.pdf. Adapted with permission.

Much estimation suggests that a year of education raises a person’s income by about 10%; education is obviously an important factor that can be a great help in a long term survival in the individual’s life. Using the data in Figure 1, the authors discover that people with B.A. degree or higher live with more than 20% better health conditions than people who are under-educated. Furthermore, another research statistic from United States Census Bureau (2007) states:

“One more year of education increases life expectancy by 0.18 years, using a 3 percent discount rate, or by 0.6 years without any discounting…calculations suggest that the health returns to education increase the total returns to education by at least 15 percent, and perhaps by as much as 55 percent” (United States Census Bureau, 2007)

Even though there is more research about the relationship between education and well-being, the three similar studies above verify enough factual evidence as to what extent public education, or education in general, will expand a person’s life span. People with higher education have more chance to achieve a care-free life for everyday food money, and they will help out others accomplishing for their better conditions as well. In other words, they spend time not only for themselves but also for society.

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Figure 2: Volunteer activity by education level and average hours per year. Adapted from “Bureau of Labor Statistics,” by College Board, 2007, Retrieved from http://www.collegeboard.com/prod_downloads/about/news_info/trends/ed_pays_2007.pdf. Adapted with permission.

As the statistic illustrates, an increase in educational level causes an increase in volunteering hours approximately by 10%. The act of helping others shows a better future, forming balanced society, as it will be demonstrated for the future generations. These two positive social factors for individuals and for society began with education, and they will be very helpful influences for the development of country.

The economy is also a major area that is controlled undeniably and responsively by education. Just as the relationship between the death rate and the amount of schooling, it is stated that “An individual’s potential income can increase as much as 10% with each additional year of schooling” (Global Partnership for Education, 2013). Many students know one of the reasons for education is to acquire the necessities for life: food, water, clothing, housing, and more, which requires for money. In order for a human to survive in this competitive society, it is necessary for him or her to keep succeeding in education to be able to apply for better jobs in the future.

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Figure 3: Educational attainment verses earnings and unemployment rates. Adapted from “Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey,” by United States Census Bureau, 2006, Retrieved from http://www.rowan.edu/provost/plans_Strategies/documents/Benefitsof HigherEducation-TheBenefitsofHigherEducation.pdf. Adapted with permission.

Figure 3 displays the relationship between education levels, weekly earnings, and unemployment rate. The increase in education level facilitates for earning better paid jobs and a diminished amount of unemployment. In addition, more education leads to less conflict over material necessities in living. Also, the rate of unemployment drops, which could benefit the nation by cutting its budget for the unemployed.

“Improving education outcomes could result in national savings between $7.9 and $10.8 billion annually in public assistance, food stamps, and housing assistance. Just lowering class size for African American males in elementary school would save taxpayers $22,000 per individual in reduced enrollment in welfare programs over time. And quality pre-kindergarten programs save taxpayers an additional $20,000 for each participant that graduates from high school” (Mitra, 2011).

A better education system could help this nation save money in many areas. As the report from Pennsylvania demonstrates, aiding education will be Pennsylvania’s best investment. So, the nation should be focusing more on educating people rather than investigating or wasting government money on unnecessary purposes that could be redeemed with better educational system.

Education is an important aspect in peoples’ lives. Anyone can be a hero in society through public education. There is a saying: “Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world” (Mandela, 2003), by Nelson Mandela, said while he was delivering a speech called “Lighting your way to a better future” to his nation. Mandela, as a president of one nation said, in order for people to create a better nation, the knowledge of individuals need to shine, and this collection of lights will ultimately illuminate the whole world, beautifying the universe.

 

 

References

Baum and Payea. (2004). Percentage of adults reporting excellent or very good health [data file]. Retrieved from http://jcu.edu/academic/planassess/planning/files/Planning%20articles/Broader%20Social%20Benefits.pdf

College Board. (2007). Bureau of Labor Statistics (2007) [data file]. Retrieved from http://www.collegeboard.com/prod_downloads/about/news_info/trends/ed_pays_2007.pdf

Global Partnership for Education. (2013, January). The Value of Education. Retrieved from

http://www.globalpartnership.org/who-we-are/the-value-of-education/

Mandela, N. (16 July, 2003). Lighting Your Way to a Better Future. Launch of Mindset Network. Planetarium, University of the Witwatersrand Johannesburg South Africa.

Mitra, D. (2011). Pennsylvania’s Best Investment: Benefits of Public Education, 1-12 [data

file]. Retrieved from http://www.elc-pa.org/BestInvestment_Full_Report_6.27.11.pdf

Picker, L. (2008). The Effect of Education on Health. The National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved from http://www.nber.org/digest/mar07/w12352.html.

University Leadership Council. (2008). The Benfits of Higher Education [data file]. Retrived from
http://www.rowan.edu/provost/plans_Strategies/documents/BenefitsofHigherEducation-TheBenefitsofHigherEducation.pdf

United States Census Bureau. (2007). National Longitudinal Mortality Study (NLMS) [data file]. Retrieved from http://www.nber.org/digest/mar07/w12352.html.

United States Census Bureau. (2006). Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey. (2006) [data file]. Retrieved from http://www.rowan.edu/provost/plans_Strategies/documents/BenefitsofHigherEducation-TheBenefitsofHigherEducation.pdf

X, M. (1965). The Autobiography of Malcom X. UK: Penguin Books.

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Equal Education: Public schools-The Appropriate Fit

April 7, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Ed Services, Public Education Programs

Equal Education: Public schools-The Appropriate Fit

            Each student is entitled to a beneficial education regardless of skin color, ethnic background, academic ability, or any disability he or she might have. Moreover, students should not be denied the help they need to build a better future for themselves.  However, private schools do not always follow this humane concept. These schools choose not to accept all of their applicants because of these factors, while public schools are required to educate every child. Students, especially students with extra needs, require outside assistance to aid them towards acquiring a beneficial education. Public schools are the ones to offer constructive education, useful programs, and a good environment for mentally or physically disabled students- whereas private schools do not.

Some people believe that all schools are required to accept any child. However, this is not true with private schools. Private schools choose not to educate children with special needs, so they usually reject these students. (Private versus Public) Not only do private schools do this because they do not want to “waste” their money on the necessary program to help provide students with a beneficial education, but also because they would make the school “look bad” academically. (Private vs. Public school) On the other hand, public schools guarantee an educational experience, and are required to help a child as much as possible. Furthermore,  public schools usually do not remove a child from school if he or she is not excelling. In contrast, private schools have the power to do this. (Sprinkle) In the end, public schools are the ones to give each student the chance to learn by creating various free and efficient programs.

Specialized programs are supportive and  important when helping a student excel in his or her education. Services such as the  IEP (Individualized Education Program) is one of the larger program that maintains beneficial assistance for children with disabilities. The IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act), a federal law, is an advocate of this program, and: “[It] governs how states and public agencies provide early intervention, special education and related services” (Building the legacy: IDEA 2004). Kids Health website explains that the IEP is regulated in public schools free of charge, and it helps children without restricting them to the environment. However, the writer warns parents that if they enroll their disabled children in private schools rather than public, they will not be provided with FAPE (free appropriate public education). In addition to this, the writer explains that their children might not receive the same beneficial services as they would in public schools; they even might not receive any services at all. (Individualized Education Programs (IEPs)) Public schools administer these special programs in order to assist the students in need of extra support. In turn, these guided children are then able to fill their heads with knowledge which will lead them to the pathway of a successful life and future. The availability of most of these programs is upheld by the law which is stated by The American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. The writer discloses that a child with special needs will usually: “receive additional services or accommodations through the public schools” (Services In School For Children With Special Needs: What Parents Need To Know). Moreover, IDEA, the same group that administers the IEP, regulates most of these special programs. This act provides trained teachers to assist a student with extra needs. (Graybeal, 2009) However, private schools do not offer this benefit. They do not need to abide by this law. Furthermore, private schools might only accept a “homogeneous” classroom of gifted students who pass all their specialized tests which are not under the state government’s control or regulation. (Kelly, 2009) The collected data shows how public funded schools contain far more children in special education than private schools.

 

 

 

 

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Figure 1: Shows the school settings of students with ASD (autism) in public, public/special, private, private/special, home school, and other settings. This data was taken in 2008.

 

 

 

 

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Figure 2: The data taken in 2008, shows how speech and language therapy is mostly found in public schools rather than in private schools. Another place it can be found is an Early Childhood Program.

 

 

 

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Figure 3: The pie chart displays the immense difference between public and private schools when concerning the availability of occupational therapy. The Early Childhood Program is also another area where this therapy is practiced. This data was taken in 2008.

 

 

 

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Figure 4: The pie chart, which has data that was collected in 2008, points out how applied behavior analysis is mostly found in public schools rather than in private schools.

 

 

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Figure 5: The data taken in 2008 shows that social skills training is practiced in more public schools than in private schools. A small amount can be found in an Early Childhood Program.

 

In essence, public schools offer  free and beneficial programs that can steer children with any type of disability towards the right path. On the other hand, private schools would rather make these overwhelmed families pay in order to help their children live a fulfilling life which the children might actually not even achieve because of the private school’s lack of trained teachers in the subject of disability. (Chen 2007). Furthermore, the data proves that public schools provide more effective services than private schools. In addition to this, public schools supply more trained teachers and administer a greater number of specialized programs.

The type of environment can be very important to a student, and a student’s surroundings can be immensely beneficial towards his or her educational experience. This is especially true for a disabled child trying to cope with a fast-paced world and trying to absorb knowledge despite the stressful situation he or she is in. Public schools help students with their disabilities through various programs while exposing them to an unrestricted environment. IDEA upholds this concept by keeping children in regular classrooms while still assisting them with specialized programs. Although, some might suggest disability- focused private schools, public schools are much more effective because they do not focus on one disability. These specialized schools do more harm to a child in the long run, because they segregate disabled children from their peers. In addition, children enrolled in a specialized private school will have numerous troubles with their lives after they complete their education. Specialized private schools might also stop making a profit which lead them to begin kicking some of the children out of the school. (Sprinkle) Public schools provide the best experiences and prepare disabled students more effectively.

Therefore, public schools are a better choice for children with disabilities. Public schools accept any child, offer special programs, and are built in a beneficial setting. Parents want the best for their children, but they associate paying large amounts of money with great results which leads them to get sucked into the hands of the  private schools. If they saw what public schools have to offer, they would understand that these public schools are the appropriate fit for their children.

 

 

 

 

References

Chen, G. (2007). Public School vs. Private School. Public School. Retrieved Feb 2 2013 from

http://www.publicschoolreview.com/articles/5

Graybeal, L. (n.d.). Mississippi Public Schools: Special Education Benefits. EHow. Retrieved Feb 2                     2013 from

http://www.ehow.com/list_6461515_mississippi-schools_-special-education-benefits.html

IDEA-Building The Legacy of IDEA 2004. (n.d.). US Department of Education. Retrieved February                   20, 2013, from idea.ed.gov/

Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) . (n.d.). KidsHealth – the Web’s most visited site about              children’s health. Retrieved February 20, 2013, from http://kidshealth.org/parent/growth/learni

Figure 1-5. Data of Public vs. Private Schools. Adapted from “IAN ‘Back to School’ Report,”                  Copyright 2008 by the Kennedy Krieger Institute (KKI). Adapted with Permission.  Retrieved                     Feb 2 2013 from

http://www.iancommunity.org/cs/ian_research_reports/back_to_school_2008

Kelly, M. (2009). Teaching at Private vs. Public Schools. Secondary Education. Retrieved Feb 2 2013     from http://712educators.about.com/od/jobopenings/a/private-public.htm

Private versus Public. (n.d.). Great Schools. Retrieved Feb 2 2013 from

http://www.greatschools.org/find-a-school/defining-your-ideal/59-private-vs-public-schools.gs?page=2

Private vs. Public School. (n.d.). School Choice International . Retrieved Feb 2 2013 from

http://www.schoolchoiceintl.com/private-vs-public-school/

Services In School For Children With Special Needs: What Parents Need To Know. (n.d.). American                  Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry . Retrieved Feb 2 2013 from

http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/facts_for_families/services_in_school_for_children_with_special_needs_what_parents_need_to_know

Sprinkle, N. (n.d.). Public or Private? Choosing the Right School for Your ADHD Child. Attitude.                     Retrieved Feb 2 2013 from http://www.additudemag.com/adhd/article/1966.html

 

 

 

 

 

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Race to Learn

April 7, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Reforms in Public Schools

Race to Learn

            Imagine watching NASCAR races on the sports channel; cars zoom in and out of view. Cheers from the crowds fill the arena. One lap, two laps, three laps – it continues. Fast and furious, the race to the top zooms on and on until it becomes a blur. Whose car is that? Which racer is ahead now? What comes next? It becomes difficult to tell. Rewind a little and pay some more attention and the answers stare at you from the screen. Oh, right, so-and-so passed up the other racer and is now on his sixth lap, and a refueling session is coming up. Similarly, it is time for us to rewind a little in our education. President Obama and President Bush before him have sought educational reform, yet success has been limited.  By looking back at the history of public education in the United States, or at least, by skimming over it, we will be able to find a solution to today’s educational woes.  This way, it is possible to rejuvenate the public school system so it will regain its position as the most competitive types of schooling. Key events to be studied throughout include the beginnings of public education, segregation and how it was resolved in public schools, the effects of the World Wars, and finally, the current situation.

Even before the United States won its independence, communities were already beginning to implement educational systems.  In 1647, “ the General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony decree[d] that every town of fifty families should have an elementary school and that every town of 100 families should have Latin school [equivalent to a high school]” (Applied Research Center, 2012). Thus, it becomes clear that even early settlers believed in the value of public education. These schools not only taught the children basic information about their religion, but also provided a sense of community that tied the colonists together.  Thattai (2001) notes that as more immigrants moved to America, the concept of religious schooling in public education was weakened. At first, most of the population was Puritan and Congregationalist. However, with the diversity of faiths increasing, private schooling became the norm, as each group sought to maintain its religion and religious ideals (pg. 1). As a result, education became a privilege reserved for the wealthy few. Many of the poorer classes were unable to attend school, and, as a result, a large portion of the population remained uneducated.  Fortunately, this began to change as the United States inched toward independence. In 1785, near the end of the Revolutionary war, Thomas Jefferson, author of the Declaration of Independence and third president of the soon to be United States of America, provided a significant push for public education in his book, Notes on the State of Virginia. He began by proposing to organize each county into small districts, each of which would have a school. Within these districts, each person would be required to send his children to school for at least three years. Furthermore, Jefferson proposes that each year, a genius will be chosen whose parents are too poor to give him further education, and he will be given the modern equivalent of a scholarship to continue in higher branches of learning. Twenty other geniuses would be instructed at public expense. Ten of them would only continue for six years while the other ten would be sent to continue three years of science education. The purpose of all this is to create geniuses and superior intellectuals. Jefferson continues to describe the bill as one that would create schools that could adapt to the years, capacity, and condition of every student.  The masses would be able to receive instruction and future leaders would be molded. The first stage of education would instill children with knowledge of history and morality. It would also give them hope of upward social mobility. The main goal of the public education system, according to Jefferson, is to provide future leaders with useful facts and good principles that would exercise the mind. This cycle of education is meant to inform the masses and make them able to defend adequately their rights and guard their liberty (Jefferson, 1785, pgs 153-156). Jefferson proved to be a remarkably forward thinker for his time, as he laid the foundation for what was to become one of the greatest educational systems in the world. His ideas of having a driven population motivated to learn and be active were later expressed in Jacksonian democracy when Andrew Jackson was President. The educated masses were better able to fight for their rights now, as evidenced by the Greenback Labor Party, the Populists, and the Progressives: “If every individual which composes their mass participate of the ultimate authority, the government will be safe” (Jefferson , 1785, pg 156). It is because Jefferson implanted these ideas that education was able to grow and that later generations were able to keep the government on the right path, especially through the Gilded Age and during periods of corrupt politics. Jefferson’s Notes on the State of Virginia was undoubtedly the single largest push for education in early America and thus, warrants thorough examination and analysis.

Public education continued to grow and expand, as more and more citizens attended public schools and took up the tools that would help them in life.  In 1820, the “first public high school in the U.S., Boston English, open[ed] [and in 1827] Massachusetts, passe[d] a law making all grades of public school open to all pupils free of charge” (Applied Research Center, 2012). The demand for education was growing, and its utility was being recognized. Yet, the public education system was still far from reaching modern standards. In fact, historical analysis shows that until the 1840s, education was, generally, highly localized. Reformers like Horace Mann and Henry Barnard fought to make it more accessible to all. These efforts culminated in free elementary public education for all American children by the end of the 1800s (Thattai, 2001, pg 2). Jefferson’s ideals lived on in society even after he left the White House. Others were taking up the cry and fighting to have an educated public that could maintain a pure democracy. Unfortunately, education for everyone was not necessarily equal education for everyone. The 1896 court case Plessy v Ferguson legalized segregation. As a result, education was segregated; African Americans were unable to attend white schools. Acquiring education at the same level became difficult, as nearly all African Americans had been denied any form of education prior to this. Activists like Booker T. Washington attempted to increase educational equality for African Americans. However, it was not until 1954 that Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka reversed the previous ruling: “The Supreme court unanimously agrees that segregated schools are “inherently unequal” and must be abolished.” (Applied Research Center, 2012). The move away from segregated schools was difficult after nearly a hundred years of segregation. Yet, the Civil Rights Movement, increased aid from the federal government, and more tolerance combined to eliminate segregation and reduce discrimination. It did take a disproportionately long time for racial equality to become a reality, but the United States public education system has been refined since then, and its methods of accommodating every student have been improving as well. Now, students of all nationalities and religions can study together. Students with disabilities are cared for, and gifted students are challenged. Those who are learning English as a second language are shown the right path. Public schools are now miniature melting pots that symbolize American diversity. As in a chemical reaction, catalyzing the reaction took the most energy, but maintaining it is far less taxing.

A completely separate chemical reaction was taking place after the world wars, especially WWII. The population of the United States increased quite a bit after WWI, but the post-war baby boom after WWII brought some of the most significant changes. Researchers note that after WWII, the number of school children grew along with the demand for facilities and teachers. As a result, teacher certification requirements were lowered to a point where the standards were inadequate. Fortunately, a teacher surplus in the late 1960s reversed this, and requirements rose once again. To deal with the costs of administration and facility maintenance, many small districts began to join together. This made it simpler to organize and maintain a larger number of schools. Another seemingly unrelated effect of WWII was the Cold War between the U. S. and Russia. It was catalyzed by the dropping of the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Since the Soviet Union felt threatened, it began to expand, a dilemma for the United States’ mission: to prevent the spread of communism. By now, the U.S. and Soviet Union were deadlocked in competition. When Sputnik was launched by the Soviets in 1957, American politicians began to blame America’s educational system. They believed the Soviets had gotten ahead because they provided superior training in math and science. This led to millions of dollars being allocated to reform education and solve the problem (Gelbrich, 1999). The belief was that with improved education, a more competitive United States would emerge. Increases in population and global competition helped to usher in a new era of reform wherein education became a method of maintaining American supremacy.

Throughout the remainder of the nineties and the early 2000s, cries for reform have not ceased. Educators, politicians, parents, and students continue to strive for the best education system. Curriculums are constantly revised; standards are updated, and testing is reviewed and improved. In fact, total expenditure per pupil has been increasing steadily since 1965.

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Figure 1. This figure shows the total expenditures per pupil for fall enrollment from 1965 to 2001. The statistics are from the NCES, Digest of Education Statistics in 2003. According to the graph, the expenditures rose from $3,400 in 1965 to $8,745 in 2001.  Adapted from Department of Education, (2007). 10 facts about k-12 education funding. Retrieved from website: http://www2.ed.gov/about/overview/fed/10facts/index.html

 

 

In addition, funding for the Department of Education has increased as well, magnifying its role in the regulation of public education.

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Figure 2. This graph indicates that funding for the DOE has been constantly increasing since 2008.  Adapted from the United States Senate Committee on the Budget, (2011). SBC White Paper on Education in America: It’s not about the Money. Retrieved from website: http://budget.senate.gov/republican/public/index.cfm/budget-background?ID=f0d9a199-0055-4b4c-a622-36ec9079c6e1

 

Yet, there is always room for improvement; President Obama has sought to pass measures like Race to the Top, but the key to educational success, he believes, is in the students themselves, as emphasized in his speech A National Address to America’s Schoolchildren. Mr. President begins his speech by connecting with the students he is addressing by relating his own experiences to theirs. After doing so, President Obama transitions to the main topic – the responsibility of students and its role in education. He first discusses the responsibility of each student to himself. Education offers the opportunity for students to find what they are good at. He specifically mentions how a student could be a wonderful writer but may never know this until he writes an assigned English essay. He continues to explain that even if the subjects studied do not relate to a student’s future career, education allows the development of skills and intellectual ability that help to solve problems. After setting the stage, Obama goes on to explain how he understands the difficulty of dealing with school, among other issues, again bringing in some of his own experiences. Then, he encourages students to overcome these challenges and inspires them by giving examples of those who have. Lastly, the President mentions the responsibility of students to their country since the students of today are the problem-solvers of tomorrow (Obama, 2009).  This begs the question, are the students of today their own reformers? Is it enough? The answer will never be clear-cut, but it is undeniable that the demands of students have done more to shape the education system of today than anyone else. The government must work for the students since, as Thomas Jefferson pointed out, the masses control the government, and the more educated they are, the better their decisions.

As the next lap in the education race comes up ahead, it becomes easier to focus. By rewinding a little, the trend of public education reform has been made clear. Of course, no lap is like the one before it, but by understanding what came first, it becomes less of a hassle to figure out what must come next. The role of the United States as a nation must parallel this. Constituents and politicians alike must come together to maintain one of the oldest and one of the best public school systems in the world.

 

 

 

 

 

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Music Education

April 7, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Fine Arts, Public Education Programs

Music Education: Orchestrating Intellectual Diversity

In the Music Supervisor’s Journal, Frances E. Clark asks, “If then music can be used as a real force in education in addition to its great  value as a cultural subject,  why is it not functioning  in every school system in the country” (Clark, 1921)? Since the article’s publication in 1921, this difficult question is still being asked, and some educators still cannot come up with an answer. In most schools, music-based classes and extracurriculars are not mandatory credit requirements. However, many students voluntarily choose to participate in music-based education. A recent advocacy article published by the Music Education Policy Roundtable, titled Music Education:  Core to Orchestrating Success, explains the benefits and reasons behind the importance of music education. The document explains that music “motivates [students] to work harder in other classes and assists them with becoming more actively involved in the community as adults” (Hall, 2012). In addition, young adults are given valuable “performance opportunities that encourage and nurture lifelong connections and an appreciation for the arts”(Hall, 2012) By playing instruments and by being actively involved in different ensembles, many students are given the chance to develop musical skills that they will keep for the rest of their lives. In addition, they will be able to think more diversely with their expanded, creative minds. Combined with other important subjects, such as reading and math, music offers unique performance and team-building opportunities that can help enrich students’ experiences in school.

Financially stable schools with strong music programs often have a variety of students with different musical skill levels and backgrounds. In these institutions, some students see music-based classes as a fun extracurricular or side activity. However, there are usually a few students who take music more seriously. Figure 1 illustrates a diagram explaining how students typically perceive their experiences in these activities.
 garvey

 

Figure 1. Dimensions of meaning in music education. Adapted from “Perceptions of meaningfulness among high school instrumental musicians,” by J.E.C. Cape, 2012, Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/2286/450rgeo3zxvReferences. Adapted with permission.

Typically, students who pursue music after high school have a more positive outlook in the activity. The figure above explains the different dimensions of meaning that influences a student’s perception of music: the community setting, his or her peers and teachers, and the music itself. A few factors that influence these feelings include: the student’s area of study in a particular instrument,  the student’s overall perception of music instructors and teachers, the community involved in the program, the skill level of an ensemble, the values and goals of the program, and the amount of individual practice a student does. Students who wish to pursue music as a career usually have more optimistic outlooks on the activity compared to their peers.  In addition, if the student in question has dedicated many hours of practice time, he or she is more likely to study music in the future. However, students are usually discouraged from pursuing music any further. According to the US Department of Labor, musicians are expected to experience long periods of unemployment. In addition, it is stated that “Despite expected growth, there should be strong competition for jobs because of the large number of workers who are interested in becoming musicians and singers.” (2012) Because of this, students often think twice before deciding to choose music as a career. In high schools that face greater financial difficulties, music and art-based programs are usually the first to be eliminated. Although music education has been proven to be beneficial for students as a way to express creativity, educators usually think that careers in the arts are insignificant. When cutting these programs, educators look at the big picture and take a student’s future into consideration.  However, these educators fail to see the other possibilities. Music education can help increase a student’s creative and intellectual levels. In our society it is common for many famous engineers, software developers, and designers to have been musicians at one point in time. Although music education can help a student achieve a music-based career, it can also aid a student in the intellectual growing process. In other words, art-based education can help prepare a student for almost any job in the future.
In public schools, music can be beneficial to a student’s educational growth by increasing the mind’s thinking capacity. However, several other educators argue that art-based classes are not necessary because they do not contribute to an individual’s future in a direct, significant way. Music education does not exist to make every student a professional musician, and many educators do not understand this concept. Public education offers more possibilities for students. In addition, these classes help high school students realize what they want to pursue later in life. Music education does not directly prepare a young adult for a serious career. Instead, it can help prepare students for the future by giving them unique performance opportunities that can expand their learning capabilities. By giving young adults these experiences, these memories can ultimately help them think outside the bounds of traditional thinking, creating intellectual diversity amongst all students.

 

Cape, J. E. C. (2012). Perceptions of meaningfulness among high school instrumental musicians.                (Doctoral dissertation), Available from ASU Digital Repository. Retrieved from                 http://hdl.handle.net/2286/450rgeo3zxvReferences:References:

Clark, F. E. C. (1921). Music in education. Music Supervisors’ Journal8(2), 20-22. Retrieved from                  http://www.jstor.org/stable/3382569

Hall, W. C. (2012, 11 05). [Web log message]. Retrieved from http://advocacy.nafme.org/blog/music-    education-core-to-orchestrating-success/

U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2012). Occupational outlook handbook. Retrieved              from website: http://www.bls.gov/ooh/entertainment-and-sports/musicians-and-singers.htm

 

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The Role of the Federal Government

April 6, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Laws Affecting Public Education, Reforms in Public Schools

 

Horace Mann once declared, “Education, then, beyond all other devices of human origin, is the great equalizer of the conditions of men, – the balance- wheel of the social machinery” (1848). In a world where education is the foremost qualification for employees, a slight disadvantage leaves a worker behind in the dust. The U.S. Constitution grants states the rights to create their own curricula and to decide how much funding goes towards education. States, such as Massachusetts and New York, which invest in education more than other states, such as Arizona or Mississippi, produce far better work-ready students than those of their counterparts.  According to National Public Radio (NPR), Massachusetts spends about $12,000 to $15,000 per public school student; on the other side of the spectrum, Arizona spends only about $6,000 to $8,000 per student (Vo, 2012). The privileged students who were born in the states which take interest in students’ educations will succeed further on in life. A student’s standard of living depends on the quality of education he receives; therefore, when the disparity of interest in education was immense between the states, the federal government stepped up in order to give every student the chance to have a promising future through the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA).

The federal government did indeed step up to the plate in order to raise standards of education for all of the states through ESEA. Drafted by President George W. Bush in 2001, it aims to have all students graduate from high school with superior academic achievements, produce highly qualified teachers, and promote equal opportunity for all students (U.S. Department of Education, 2010). The act mandates that all students, even those who are either economically, physically, or mentally disadvantaged, reach proficiency in math and English. According to the U.S. Department of Education, if schools do not meet the requirements, they “must provide supplemental services, such as free tutoring or after-school assistance; take corrective actions; and, if still not making adequate yearly progress after five years, make dramatic changes to the way the school is run” (Stronger Accountability, 2003). The federal government initiated these requirements in order to provide incentives for underperforming schools to improve their standards of teaching; through these implementations, substandard schools now had no rationale of being second-rate.

Although the federal government has alleviated the standard of education in a couple states, some argue that the acts such as ESEA have rather deteriorated standards in other states. As Congress contemplates rewriting the ESEA, critics argue that it has not only decreased the quality of education but also morality: “At the Senate hearing, Education Secretary Arne Duncan noted that 19 states had “dummied down standards” under the No Child Left Behind law. Critics also say the law has compelled educators to teach to the tests and set off a spate of cheating scandals” (Rich, 2013). Due to ESEA’s penchant for standardized tests, many detractors believe that students are losing the ability to think innovatively; in addition, the resources needed for student’s success in work forces are almost non-existent. If the students are not ready for the work force, the entire purpose of ESEA will be brought to naught (Rich, 2013).

The critics have argued that the federal government, instead of raising the quality of education, has “dummied down” the standards of intelligence by implementing standardized testing as a means of measuring progress. However, the government has been quick to respond. Since 2012, the Obama administration has waived 34 states and the District of Columbia from No Child Left Behind “in exchange for rigorous and comprehensive State-developed plans designed to improve educational outcomes for all students, close achievement gaps, increase equity, and improve the quality of instruction” (ESEA Flexibility, 2013). The government has addressed the critics and worked with them to create an efficient model that is unique to each state.

No Child Left Behind is indeed controversial. It asks for complete proficiency of English and math from all students by 2014; it penalizes schools that scored poorly on standardized tests. However, the federal government has worked with the critics in order to reach out to all students of the United States. Each state has the right to allot the educational funds and create its own curriculum. Yet, students all have the rights to the best education that can be given by the states; when the states violate these rights, the federal government should intervene to protect students’ rights to be educated. The government has indeed stepped up to its role to allow all of its citizens to have equal opportunity through education.

 

References

ESEA Flexibility. (2013, February 14). U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from http://www2.ed.gov/policy/elsec/guid/esea-flexibility/index.html

Mann , H. (1848). Encyclopaedia Britannica: Facts matter. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/362466/Horace-Mann/362466suppinfo/Supplemental-Information

Rich, M. (2013, February 9). Holding states and schools accountable. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2013/02/10/education/debate- over-federal-role-in-public-school-policy.html

Stronger Accountability.  (2003). U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from http://www2.ed.gov/nclb/accountability/index.html

U.S. Department of Education. (2010). A blueprint for reform: The reauthorization of the elementary and secondary education act. Retrieved from http://www2.ed.gov/policy/elsec/leg/blueprint/blueprint.pdf

Vo, L. T. (2012, June 21). How much does the government spend to send a kid to public school? Npr. Retrieved from http://www.npr.org/blogs/money/2012/06/21/155515613/how-much-does-the-government-spend-to-send-a-kid-

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Opportunity for Athletes

April 4, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Athletics, Public Education Programs

 

In American society, sports play a prominent part in the culture. There are so many different sports to choose from at so many different levels of competition. Many Americans start off when they are young through programs such as the YMCA. Once these athletes get older, they have the opportunity to play in junior high and high school, and if they have the ability, they could even play collegiately for their specific sport. Public schools allow students to achieve their lifelong dreams and aspirations through athletics, without having to pay tuition. The list goes on for what these public schools can do for students with truly amazing abilities. Students are able to obtain sports scholarships and leave high school with some beneficial character traits.

There are endless benefits of playing sports. It is the little aspects that are continually overlooked that compose this symphony we call sports. One part of sports that is overlooked is the social aspect: “As students compete with fellow peers and competitors, teens are engaging in physical and mental activities that can guide teens to learn more about solid work-ethic, the importance of practice, and the imperativeness of determination” (Chen, 2008). Students improve social qualities that can only be gained through competition. Even though it is not a large part, it is a factor for future success. Qualities of a successful person in the workforce include: working well with others, great work ethic, and a positive attitude. These qualities can be found in athletes across the nation: “Sport should be an avenue for teenagers to have some clean, healthy fun and to learn some life skills, such as teamwork, doing your best and striving to improve” (2011). So even if an athlete does not play collegiately, he or she can still come out of high school with an assortment of skills and experiences that most students would not have. The hidden truth of it all is that these qualities cannot be taken away and could take someone a long way.

The most important device that public high schools provide is opportunity. Essentially, anyone who is cleared is able to play sports in high school, giving him or her the opportunity to further enhance their abilities and play at the next level. For students who do not come from families who can afford to pay college tuition, an athletic scholarship is a perfect gateway to a college degree and a successful life. That is a pretty amazing opportunity, and it is all possible through public schools that provide sports for their students.

The opportunities are not just for male athletes either. There is a rising amount of female athletes as a direct result of Title IX, which provides equal opportunity for education as well as athletics: “As a result, the proportion of a female high school students participating in athletics rose from 1 in 27 females in 1972 to 1 in 4 by 1978” (Stevenson). This new act revolutionized high school sports because it gave females the chance to play and possibly get a scholarship. The opportunities are out there it is just a matter of who will take advantage of them.

Even with such amazing opportunities, there are some negatives that come along with athletic participation. The most obvious danger is the possibility of serious injury. There may be an assortment of amazing opportunities, but those can be taken away in a heartbeat. Any contact sport, such as football, basketball and soccer, can lead to an extreme injury. Many parents have concerns with the potential dangers, but it is a learning process where a parent has to understand the benefits as well as the deficits. Chen stated: “Adding to this, as the doctors further explain, the sole job of parents and coaches of young athletes is to serve as guides that can maximize the athleticism benefits, while simultaneously aiming to minimize the potential deficits” (Chen, 2008). Although it is not likely, injury can happen to anyone, and that is a risk that a multitude of athletes are willing to take if it means getting to the next level and possibly even to the top, the pros.

In conclusion, athletes can gain much more than just physical attributes from athletics. The opportunities are almost endless. At the same time, there are any risks that go along with playing sports. It is high risk and high reward depending on how much time and effort an athlete puts into that sport. Sports are a great way for students to achieve dreams and goals that they have had all their lives, or maybe just temporarily. Thanks to the public school system, all of this is possible. The opportunities are out there; how many students will take advantage of them?

 

References

Chen, G. (2008, December 31). Pros and Cons of Sports Competition at the High School Level. Retrieved from http://www.publicschoolreview.com/articles/67

Stevenson, B. (2010, February). Using Title IX to Measure the Return to High School Sports. Retrieved from http://www.nber.org/papers/w15728.pdf?new_window=1

(2011). Teenagers and competitive sport. Teenage children tend to drop out of sport, some never returning. Some tips on how to maintain interest in sport in teenage children. Teenager and Competitive Sport. Retrieved from http://www.essortment.com/teenagers-competitive-sport-36885.html

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The American Ideals

April 4, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Public Vs. Private, School Structure

 

America was created on outstanding ideals: freedom, happiness, and hope.  In today’s society we often forget how hard our parents and grandparents labored to achieve these ideals.  Education is an issue that has been important from the early colonial days of America.  It is of great importance that children get a good education beginning at an early age. Children have the most impressionable minds, and without a proper education, a negative attitude and inability to see a proper perspective can be a result. Our forefathers formed public schools to ensure that all children would have access to an education.  Public schools are essential to all communities and are a representation of the American dream.

Public schools are an important part of any strong community.  They create a safe place for learning and employment.  Schools provide a place for neighbors and families to come together and share a common goal.  They also provide a way for parents and the community to get involved.  Offering a free public education is a great way to encourage students so that they truly believe that their dreams for the future are possible. Public schools are simply essential to any community: “Given the central role that public schools play in communities, community development practitioners are beginning to consciously include them in neighborhood building and economic development efforts” (Chung, 2005).  According to Connie Chung’s journal article, Public Schools to Community Development, when building a new community, it is now vital to have a public school for both the economic and the community aspects.

Having a public school in a society can have a tremendous affect on the students in the schools.  NYS Education Department conducted an experiment to see how public schools affect the community. New York State High School is a state school that is not a part of any particular community, whereas Region High School is a school inside a small community.  As noted in Table 1, over the past six years Region High School has shown a lower dropout rate than New York State High School. Both the schools and the students are integral components in a thriving community.  A community public school has a sense of belonging, leading to lower drop out rates (see Table 1).

Table 1

Cohort Dropout Rate

graph01

Note. The data on drop out percentages in New York public schools is adapted from “Educational Outcomes” by CGR, Center of Governmental Research, 2008, http://www.communityprofiles.org

Immigrants come to America for the opportunity for a better life.  Public schools provide an education for students regardless of their financial situation. This is the American dream, that opportunity is available for everyone, that hope prevails, and children have the freedom to form their future.  Resnick does a great job highlighting American ideals in the article, An American Imperative: Public Education.  The article exemplifies many benefits of public schools.  In this passage it is heavily emphasized that public schools offer a free education to all Americans, regardless of their race, religion, or financial status (Resnick, 2006). Over the years a great deal of standards have changed in America, but it is our morals that remain the same and stay strong.  Public Equality brought the early Americans together in their search for freedom and hope in their future.

Public schools lie in the hands of the community.  They often surpass private schools in the sense that they are required to show equality with each student.  Resnick is saying that public schools exemplify equality for all races, ethnicities, and abilities.  One of these schools cannot deny anyone an education due to disabilities or race.  Public schools have a commitment to set high standards and high expectations for all students.  The government ensures the responsibility of the schools.  Lastly, Resnick talks about how public schools are a benefit to society because of the common values and democratic principles they teach.  Public schools are able to give a unique opportunity to all students (Resnick, 2006).   Regardless of skin color, religion, or intelligence, public schools cannot turn down any student.  This type of school, which is run by the community and provides equal education, is the epitome of American ideals.

Public education is critical to all societies and is a symbol of American ideals.  Public schools are the education of our young nation.  America is constantly known for opportunity: opportunity for a better life, free education, and a better future.  Without public schools, America as a whole would lose its values.  It is these values that make America the home of the brave and land of the free.  Our ancestors fought hard to be able to create a country where freedom and education were available for all of its citizens. These schools also symbolize the United States as a whole.  Education is for all Americans regardless of their origins, their beliefs, or their financial status—that is the ideal that built this great nation.

 

References

Chung C., (2005). Public Schools to Community Development. Connecting, 1-16. Retrieved February 1, 2013, from http://www.bos.frb.org/commdev/c&b/2005/winter/Public.pdf

Resnick, M., (2006, April 27). An American Imperative: Public education. Retrieved February 1, 2012, from http://www.centerforpubliceducation.org/Main-Menu/Public-education/An-American-imperative-Public-education-

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Virgil and Elizabeth Alme: The Most Positive Parts of Public Education

April 4, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Guest

Interviewed by Jake Alme

Public education has an important contribution in the process of enabling one to exist and contribute to society.  Education is an ongoing process and directly related to the ability of the student to absorb knowledge not only in everyday experiences of life but also in what history has taught is important to thrive.  This information is formalized in public education.

 

The most positive parts are:

Everyone is included because public education is funded by taxes of the people

Intellectual skills necessary to become productive and competent are learned

In the process of learning reading, writing, and arithmetic, one also acquires:

  • strong character
  • a sense of satisfaction in learning when accompanied by accomplishment and success

One also learns:

  • how to get along with people
  • to understand and appreciate the individual gifts of each
  • that working in a group can bring different results from working alone

 

Some public schools offer a variety of controlled activities such as music and sports that help further develop the talents and gifts of students and increase their choices in life.

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A Special Spoke

April 3, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Ed Services

 

Special education in public schools is constantly evolving; it has made enormous strides in the past three decades and continues to move in a positive direction today. Much of this progression is due to the passage of various forms of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), which guarantees that everyone with disabilities receives a free, appropriate public education.

This act, as stated by the U.S. Department of Education, is “a law ensuring services to children with disabilities throughout the nation. IDEA governs how states and public agencies provide early intervention, special education, and related services to more than 6.5 million eligible infants, toddlers, children and youth with disabilities”(2004). The purpose of this law is to provide families with disabled children with as much assistance as possible to ensure the pupil’s utmost success—inside and outside of the classroom. To be eligible for the benefits that this legislation provides, a student must have a disability. IDEA defines a disability as: “mental retardation, hearing impairments (including deafness), speech or language impairments, visual impairments (including blindness), serious emotional disturbance … orthopedic impairments, autism, traumatic brain injury, other health impairments, or specific learning disabilities”(U.S. Department of Commerce, 2011).  Evidently, the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act encompasses a grand scope of disabilities that must be accommodated by appointed professionals.

As a necessary component of the legislation, children with disabilities are provided with a complimentary evaluation at the onset of their educational endeavors, followed by subsequent testing every three years to re-evaluate their progress. Additionally, they are granted specific protections against expulsion—under reasonable circumstances—if their misdemeanor is a result of a disability (National Resource Center on ADHD). Furthermore, IDEA strives to make certain that educational institutions are giving disabled children the education they deserve: “An effective educational system serving students with disabilities should maintain high academic achievement standards …for children with disabilities, consistent with the standards and expectations for all students in the educational system, and provide for appropriate and effective strategies …to achieve those standards” (United States Congress, 2004). This act puts students in the prime position to reap all of the benefits that public education has to offer.

Thus far, the act has served its purpose and produced astounding effects. Enrollment rates in public schools have skyrocketed since the 1970s, when “U.S. schools educated only one in five children with disabilities, and many states had laws excluding certain students, including children who were deaf, blind, emotionally disturbed, or mentally retarded”(U.S. Department of Education, 2007). Fortunately, American public education has made significant progress in this regard with the aid of acts like IDEA.

nicole hicks graph

 

Figure 1. Children served by programs over time. Adapted from “Twenty-Five Years of Educating Children with Disabilities: The Good News and the Work Ahead,” by N. Kober and G. Cohen, 2002. Adapted with permission.

The number of students benefitting from IDEA and other public special education programs continues to increase rapidly—by at least 330 thousand each year, with the total increasing in recent years. The Individuals With Disabilities Education Act has an important goal of integrating students into regular classroom settings in public schools, rather than educating them at home with private tutors—a goal that they continue to accomplish, as shown by these numbers.

Significant progress has been made in educating students with disabilities in public schools. This success grants individuals equal opportunities and benefits public education as a whole. On the wheel of public education, special education is a spoke—without it, academics cannot move forward.

References

Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004, U.S.C. § 650 (2004).

Kober, N. & Cohen, G. (2002). Twenty-Five Years of Educating Children with Disabilities: The Good News and the Work Ahead. Retrieved from http://www.aypf.org/publications/special_ed.pdf

National Resource Center on ADHD. IDEA (The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act). Retrieved from http://www.help4adhd.org/education/rights/idea

U.S. Department of Commerce. (2011). School-Aged Children with Disabilities in U.S. Metropolitan Statistical Areas:2010. Washington, D.C.: Brault, M. Retrieved from tps://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/acsbr10-12.pdf

U.S. Department of Education. (2004). Building the Legacy: IDEA 2004. Retrieved from http://idea.ed.gov/

U.S. Department of Education. (2007, July 19). Twenty-Five Years of Progress in Educating Children with Disabilities Through IDEA. Retrieved from http://www2.ed.gov/policy/speced/leg/idea/history.html

 

 

 

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Accelerating the Gifted, How To Deal With Genius

April 3, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Public Education Programs

Public schools have come a long way from the one room school houses of the 1800s. Even in the past few decades education has risen up and created more pathways for the students to follow, converge, and thrive in. Many in the educational sphere focus on the lagging children – the kids who cannot keep up – which is a conversation that is bound to occur at almost any educational discussion. Yet another topic, of equal importance, is hardly ever mentioned during the debates: the gifted children. Gifted children pose a troubling challenge as to the appropriate method of their education and curriculum. Just like the remedial children, the advanced students need a stylized plan for their educational future. Recently, many new plans have been introduced and implemented, such as offering more honors and advanced placement (AP) classes, or allowing the students to skip a grade or two. Public schools have been found to perform best in these categories and can handle children on any part of the higher educational scale, whether they are advancing, gifted, or just honors.

For many years, and even to this day, acceleration was feared and misunderstood, because of many previous studies: “For every lovable Doogie Howser, M.D. [a T.V. character who was a licensed doctor by the age of fourteen], we fear there’s also a William James Sidis [a child who was accelerated through school by his parents, and faced an unfortunate bitter end because of it]” (Cloud, Badowski, Rubiner, & Scully, 2004). Skipping grades was believed to hinder the student’s childhood by throwing the student into a class with older kids, advancing him through school too quickly, and ripping him from his age-mates. How is it though, that it is easily acceptable to let a child repeat a grade, but it has taken so long to accept a child skipping a grade? Through many studies into the lives of accelerated students, it seems that these factors were not a hindrance, but a benefit. Grade-skipping is found to be truly helpful to gifted children who, in their regular grade, have a hard time with such simple material: “A 2001 study of 320 adults who were accelerated as highly gifted kids 20 years ago found that more than 70% had no regrets about the experience. Among those who were dissatisfied, nearly half wished they had accelerated more, not less” (Cloud, Badowski, Rubiner, & Scully, 2004). In recent years, it has become more common to hear of students skipping grades, and in public schools it is even more common to hear of students taking the newest and latest AP classes. Finally, schools are beginning to understand the importance capturing and challenging the minds of everyone, especially the advanced students.

It is important for advanced students to be challenged in their classes, if not by skipping a grade, then by taking advanced courses. Schools, such as Desert Vista High School, are constantly adding new AP and honors classes to their course options, allowing the advanced students to flourish in the more rigorous curriculum. Students with gifted capabilities can easily become bored in even Advanced Placement classes, so it is up to the skilled public school teachers to excite their vast intellect: “From the above discussion, one can see that nurturing gifted students’ intellectual prowess presents an additional challenge for the teachers. […]Excellent teaching of gifted students requires total commitment on the part of the teacher” (Ngoi & Vondracek, 2004). Honors and AP classes are not only becoming more frequent, but also developing into meticulously planned courses.

katie selman graph

 

 

Figure 1. AP exam participation and performance. Adapted from “Changes in AP Exam Participation and Performance,” by R. McGhee, 2012, SRI International

Figure 1 shows that many more students are realizing the potential of the AP exams and are benefiting from the high course load and advanced teaching methods. A great deal of school funds are allocated to remedial classes to help students keep up, but more should be going to these honors and AP classes to help the otherwise bored gifted children, rather than having them simply skip grades all the time.

Students with gifted capabilities and talents have always been misunderstood and cast aside; but, with public schools leading the way, many reforms are being implemented that will allow these students to take more rigorous classes and mentally stimulating workloads. If the child proves to be more advanced than his age level peers, he can skip grade levels and move on to even more challenging courses. In 2004 Nicholas Colangelo and Susan Assouline stated: “we are not aware of any other educational practice that is so well researched yet so rarely implemented” (Cloud, Badowski, Rubiner, & Scully, 2004). In 2013, more and more of that research is being put to use; it can be seen almost everywhere – from the successful gifted adults, to the interested child who just skipped a grade level. Gifted education is becoming more of a hot topic in educational circles, but there is still a long way to go for these advanced students. Luckily, with new reforms, more gifted children will be engaged and can better the future generation.

 

Resources

Cloud, J., Badowski, C., Rubiner, B., & Scully, S. (2004). Saving the Smart Kids. TIME, 164. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy1.lib.az.us:2048/ehost/detail?vid=3&sid=698a7365-ce11-48d6-bce1-ae6064dbdea8%40sessionmgr14&hid=9&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#db=a9h&AN=14441743

McGhee, R. (2012). Changes in AP Exam Participation and Performance. SRI International. Retrieved from http://www.sri.com/blog/closing-gap-between-science-students-and-stem-workers-future

Ngoi, M., & Vondracek, M. (2004). Working With Gifted Science Students in a Public High School Environment: One School’s Approach. Journal of Secondary Gifted Education, Vol. 15. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy1.lib.az.us:2048/ehost/detail?vid=21&sid=698a7365-ce11-48d6-bce1-ae6064dbdea8%40sessionmgr14&hid=9&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#db=a9h&AN=14365013

 

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“Public Schools Please” Parents Plead

April 3, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Public Vs. Private, School Structure

 

Parents are always trying to provide the best education for their children, and are willing to search high and low to find the best source of schooling. Many private schools advertise high-achieving students, invested teachers, and small class sizes. This offer, much like Snow White’s tempting red apple, seems appealing and attractive from the outside. Yet, underneath the gleaming exterior, the parents can see the poison the private schools are hiding. When parents think of public schools, they have low expectations towards the school’s potential for their child, and doubt the staff credentials; but, if they really looked at the public school system, they could see all the wonderful opportunities it has to offer. Private schools are expensive and do not offer as many of the subjects or extracurricular opportunities automatically provided by public schools. Private schools also refrain from having their kids take standardized tests, such as AIMS. Public schools are free, offer standardized tests, more subjects, extra-curricular events, and prepare their students for the real world.

Tuition for private schools can be upwards of $10,000 a year; paying private school tuition while trying to save up for college tuition adds up and can become a burden. Public schools are government-funded, provide education to all children, and do not hassle parents for full-time fundraising and monthly dues: “For parents this quickly translates into the bad news: high tuition costs and sometimes an exhausting work calendar of parent-sponsored fundraisers” (Great Schools, 2012). Since private schools pick and choose their students, they are able to claim that their students rank higher. Public schools admit everyone, so they may not be able to claim they are the best, but after a series of tests, it was found that public schools ranked among the top scores: “after accounting for the fact that private schools serve more advantaged populations, public schools perform remarkably well, often outscoring private and charter schools” (Great Schools, 2012). Many private schools do not prepare their students for standardized testing, as it is usually not required, so public school students often beat their private school peers. Despite the large class sizes, public schools perform better because of the higher curriculum standards and variety of subjects.

When people think of private schools, they think of smaller class sizes and more personalized attention towards each student. This is the image private schools have created for themselves – there are private schools with classes equal or larger in size to those in the public schools. Most people also have a tainted image of public schools – fearing the government-run system could not possibly offer as much as the high and mighty private schools. Many parents do not realize just how much public schools have to offer their children:

While private schools often win in terms of smaller class sizes and more personalized attention, public schools typically have more highly qualified–and credentialed –teachers, better classroom instruction, a deeper and richer curriculum, more advanced course offerings, and more flexibility and services for meeting student special needs. (Carr, 2007)

Public schools have set curriculums and classes that students must pass before moving on, which creates a level base for all students and broadens their horizons. Private schools, however, do not have set curriculums, and parents choose certain schools based on the few subjects they feel their child should learn. This risky move can stunt the child’s educational development, as he is not allowed to learn many different subjects. Private schools look grand from the outside, but they cannot offer as much as the distinct, real-world culture of public schools.

In today’s society, having the skills to interact well with a diverse group of people can open many doors. As a melting pot of cultures, public schools are unique in nature and prepare their students for the world outside the classroom doors:

Public school students also learn how to get along with students from all different kinds of backgrounds and cultures [...] The insular nature of most private schools, where students are more likely to meet other people just like themselves, just can’t compete with 12 years of living, working, and playing in public schools’ diverse environments. (Carr, 2007)

Not only are students meeting new people who are completely different from themselves, but they are also being taught by teachers who are more highly accredited. While private schools may be able to claim smaller class proportions, the claim is almost negated by the lack of credentials and qualifications held by some teachers. Teachers associated with public schools must go through state certification and usually hold teaching degrees in their field; private school teachers only need to have subject-area expertise. Overall, it seems clear that the public schools are doing fine on the inside; all they really need to work on is their advertising campaign.

Study after study has proven that public schools are greater in almost every educational corner. An intensive study consisting of judging panels and around 96 interviews found private schools to be lacking in several areas: “Data were analyzed by using qualitative analysis methods. It was found that, the  public schools have better  facilities, spacious  buildings, highly  qualified  staff  and  people  oriented  management styles  as  compared  to  private  schools” (Iqbal, 2012). The constant advertisement of private schools has led to a distorted view of these establishments, which can easily be ratified by light digging on the subject. Private schools put up their best grades and ask expensive tuition fees to make them seem as though they are better than they really are. Public schools reveal all of their grades and test scores and still manage to beat some of the best in the private systems. Parents looking for an educational system that will highly benefit their child, prepare him or her for the real world, and offer a wide base of education should look no further than their local public school.

 

 

 

References

Carr, N. (2007). Courting Middle-Class Parents to Use Public Schools. Education Digest. Retrieved from                 http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy1.lib.az.us:2048/ehost/detail?sid=91508e6b-59d1-446b-8ead-                1bb885215f57%40sessionmgr15&vid=1&hid=8&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1za                XRl#db=f5h&AN=25057132

Great Schools (2012). Private versus public. Great Schools. Retrieved from           http://www.greatschools.org/find-a-school/defining-your-ideal/59-private-vs-public-schools.gs

Iqbal, M. (2012). Public versus Private Secondary Schools: A Qualitative Comparison [Abstract]. Journal of Research & Reflections in Education. Retrieved from                              http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy1.lib.az.us:2048/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=9e61f06c-              6e03-479c-86c9-2fb2a81cec21%40sessionmgr14&vid=3&hid=8

 

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So Much More than Just Math

April 3, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles

 

It seems that more and more Americans fail to see the importance of a strong public education system and take for granted the free schooling that is offered to them. People often criticize the education system; however, the statistics show the criticism is ill-advised. Public education allows the population to become better informed, permitting all Americans to have a higher standard of living.

The percentage of people educated in countries that offer free education to their citizens is much higher than that of countries that do not have a public education system. The four countries that will be compared in this essay are China and Nepal, which do not have public education in effect, and the United States and Finland, which do have public education. According to the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), the literacy rate in the U.S. is 99% for people over the age of 15 (CIA – The World Factbook, 2012). IndexMundi, a data portal, states that the literacy rate in Finland is 100% (Literacy-Country Comparison-TOP 10, 2013). The U.S. and Finland have some of the highest literacy rates in the world due to public education. China, on the other hand, has a literacy rate of 92% and Nepal is even lower with 60% (CIA – The World Factbook, 2012). The amount of people allowed to attend school, because it is free, directly contributes to the percentage of people who are literate. The average literacy rate of the countries that offer public education is 99.5%, which is 20.5% higher than the literacy rate in the other two countries. From the low literacy rate, it can be inferred that many people are not able to go to school in countries that lack public education. Thus, the data shows that a public education system leads to increases in the literacy percentage of the population in a country.

An educated population leads to national financial stability. America and Finland greatly outmatched China and Nepal in per capita income (average citizen income). The average income in the United States is almost $42,000 a year according to the Bureau of Business and Economic Research or BBER (BBER, 2013). China only had a per capita income of $4,990 as stated in the World Bank (China Overview, 2012). China is supposedly the most competitive economic country with the United States. However, the drastic difference in per capita income and the $7.79 trillion advantage the United States has in Gross Domestic Product (GDP), does not support its argument (China GDP, 2012). Education is what leads to landing a high-paying job, as well as providing for one’s self and family. Without a well paying job, someone may have to keep his or her children out of school, so they can work. As these kids cannot obtain an education, they are not able to obtain a high paying job and the cycle begins anew.  Also, the education system provides America with the skilled workers necessary to remain an economic super power. Without public education, this country would not have the workforce necessary to remain competitive. Therefore, the enormous diversity and economic wealth of the U.S. is due to access of a higher quality education at a low cost.

Not only does education lead to wealth, but it also affects the quality of life. An educated population not only makes wiser decisions, but it also makes informed health choices. Education promotes a healthier lifestyle, and informs the public about the right diet and activities necessary to lead a healthy life. According to the book: Essentials of Global Health, “Education contributes to the prevention of illness” (Skolnick, (2008) pg. 43).  These healthier lifestyles are displayed in the data for life expectancy. The average life expectancy in Finland is 79.4 years (Finland Life Expectancy at Birth- Demographics, 2013), which is 15th highest life expectancy in the world according to Gadling.com, a premier travel information website (Delany, 2012). The United States is not far behind with the life expectancy of 78.2 years. China, on the other hand, has a life expectancy of 73 years. Even lower yet in life expectancy in Nepal, which is a mere 66 years according to the aforementioned IndexMundi (Nepal Life Expectancy at Birth- Demographics, 2013). Schools help teach people about healthy living, and with so many people not attending school due to cost, it would make sense the life expectancy is much lower. The difference in life expectancy directly correlates to the education received by the public.

In conclusion, the percent of the population who can read and write, the financial stability of a country, and the living conditions in a country all rely on the average education level of the public. Because the United States and Finland have a public education system in place, the two countries dominate China and Nepal in all three categories. Public education teaches so much more than just math which is what people fail to conceptualize.

 

 

References

BBER. (2012). Retrieved from Bureau of Business and Economic Research, UNM website:            http://bber.unm.edu/econ/us-pci.htm

China GDP. (2012). TRADING ECONOMICS 300.00 INDICATOR FROM 196 COUNTRIES.

Retrieved from http://www.tradingeconomics.com/china/gdp

China Overview. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/china/overview

CIA – The World Factbook. (2012). Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved from            https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2103.html

Delany, Justin. (2012, March 31). Top 20 Countries for life expectancy. Gadling.com. Retrieved

From http://www.gadling.com/2011/03/21/top-20-countries-for-life-expectancy/

Finland Life Expectancy at Birth – Demographics. (2013). Index Mundi – Country Facts.

Retrieved from http://www.indexmundi.com/finland/life_expectancy_at_birth.html

Literacy – Country Comparison – TOP 10. (2013). Index Mundi – Country Facts. Retrieved from            http://www.indexmundi.com/g/r.aspx?t=10&v=39

Nepal Life Expectancy at Birth  – Demographics. (2013). Index Mundi – Country Fact. Retrieved

From http://www.indexmundi.com/nepal/life_expectancy_at_birth.html

Skolnick, Richard MPA. (2008). Essentials of Global Health. Jones and Bartlett Learning

 

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Public Education Statistics

April 3, 2013 in 2012-2013, Archive, Articles, Public Vs. Private, School Structure

 

Millions of children in the United States attend public schools every year. Public education plays a large role in America’s economy and the lifestyle that many have inhibited. Having student equality and creating a strong basis for youth is what education is centered upon. As the ages go on, the education system structures itself to advance alongside society. The U.S. government has been able to build a strong education system that supplies sufficient knowledge to the rich or poor, man or woman. Public education exceeds with having teachers properly qualified, providing well constructed academic programs/support services, and being economically beneficial.

To define public education we need an understanding of what its intended purpose was. Archibald E. Dobbs, educated at Cambridge and Marlborough University, has a book Education and Social Movement 1700-1800 that includes a section that explains why the government created public education. Dobbs states “…as a rule, the object of Grammar